Metal Forging Tools and Equipment and Parts Supplies

Metal Forging Tools and Equipment and Parts Supplies
Posted by rtyu1yu on 2021/08/24
Metal Forging Tools and Equipment and Parts Supplies

    Metal Forging Tools and Equipment and Parts Supplies

    This article discusses the significant factors in the selection of forging equipment for a particular process. It describes the characteristics of forging hydraulic presses,

mechanical presses, screw presses, and hammers. The article discusses the significant characteristics of these machines that

comprise all machine design and performance data, which are pertinent to the economic use of the machines, including the

characteristics for load and energy, time-related characteristics, and characteristics for accuracy.

    The forging of metals and alloys is one of the oldest metal forming techniques used by humankind. Forging processes were

improved over the centuries and are still being refined. Today, we are certain that there is no limit to these improvements

and that we will never reach the point when we can say that nothing more is to be done. Despite the enormous knowledge and

experience gained over the centuries, we still face new challenges arising from civilizational progress. One of them is the

necessity to produce parts that are more and more complex in terms of shape and properties, which requires not only a deep

insight into phenomena that accompany forging processes, but also the development of new techniques,

riveting machine and equipment, materials,

research methods, and tools, as well as the improvement of the existing ones. With the Special Issue on “Forging Processes

of Materials”, the Editorial Board of Materials offers authors the possibility of presenting their findings in this field.

As the Guest Editor for the Special Issue, I would like to invite you to contribute to this publication, which, I hope, will

serve as a source of knowledge for both theoreticians and practitioners. Hence, I encourage authors to submit papers

exploring, in a broad sense, the theory and practice of forging metals and alloys. I wish to assure you that we will make

every effort to ensure the highest quality of this Special Issue.

    Forging is a hot or cold metal deformation process used to produce metal parts where strength is a paramount concern,

engine connecting rods and hand tools being two such examples. The process itself involves using compressive forces to mold

and deform metal into the desired shape. For most applications, forging entails heating the base metal until it is malleable

enough to work with, although cold and warm forging are also done.

    The forge, sometimes called a hearth, is the component that heats the metal prior to forming. In its most fundamental

form, forging can be understood in the manner of making horseshoes. The blacksmith heats the metal in the hearth, then pounds

it with a hammer against an anvil to flatten it, curve it, pierce it, and generally shape it, repeatedly reheating the metal

to maintain plasticity. Small gas-fired forges are available for blacksmiths though many forgers choose to build their own.

    Modern industrial forging relies on sophisticated, heavy-duty equipment capable of producing small accurate parts as well

as large pieces weighing many tons. As with castings and weldments, many forgings are machined after they are made to achieve

their final forms. 

    An anvil is a large slab of metal, usually made of steel, which serves as the workbench for the blacksmith or automated

hydraulic closed

die forging hammer
device. The metal is placed on the anvil, where it is hammered into the correct shape. Anvils

traditionally provide a flat hammering surface, though curved anvil tops are available. A hardy hole and punch hole can

sometimes be found on an anvil – the hardy hole serves as the square socket for accepting the shank of a hardy, an

interchangeable tool in a variety of shapes used for cutoff, bending, etc. The punch hole provides clearance for punching

holes in the metal.


    Chisels are cutting supplies that chip away at metal. They are traditionally made of high-carbon steel and consist of a

long octagonal cross-section with a tapered cutting edge on one end. There are two types of chisels—hot chisels and cold

chisels. Cold chisels are typically thinner in construction, and better suited for cold forging. Hot chisels, on the other

hand, assist in hot forging processes. Chisels are traditionally applicable in manual forging applications.


    Tongs assist in the transportation of the heated metal from the forge to the anvil. Many different tong shapes are

available to provide adequate gripping of multiple metal shapes and sizes.


    Forming tools that create grooves or indentions in the forging process are known as fullers. Fullers also help round out

corners and stretch the metal. Traditionally used in pairs, fullers work through placing one beneath the metal, and the other

on top. This enables the indentation of both sides of the metal component to occur simultaneously.

    Forging Hammers

    Different forging processes are appropriate for different applications—options such as hot forging, cold forging, closed

die forging, upset forging, and press forging are simply a few examples. Many of these forging processes require the use of a

hammer to enable compression and shaping of the metal.

Forging hammers
vary in shape, size, and material based on the particular application, but all industrial hammers

typically apply force with a large ram. Two basic types of hammers are:

    Drop hammers: Gravity allows the heavy ram to fall onto the metal.

    Power hammers: Compressed air, hydraulics, or electricity drive the hammer.

    Hammers are capable of delivering percussive impact blows with forces of up to 50,000 lbs. in their largest incarnations,

with smaller capacity units also available. For increased forging forces, forgers turn to presses.

    Forging Presses

    A forging press creates force through mechanical or hydraulic energy without relying on the weight of a hammer and the

assistance of gravity to pound metal into the desired shape. Whereas hammers shape a localized portion of the metal, a

forging press can forge the entire product at once in a process known as closed-die forging. Forging presses also duplicate

the action of hammers in the open die forging process. Both horizontal and vertical forging presses are available. The

horizontal presses are called upsetters. Two types of forging presses include:

    Mechanical forging press: A mechanical device (often a crank) propels a motor-driven flywheel, forcing the ram against

the metal. Mechanical presses are not suited for forging large or complex items but are beneficial in applications that

require simple shaping effects. They are capable of producing forces of up to 20,000 tons.

    Hydraulic forging press: High-pressure fluid propelled by hydraulic pumps forces the ram against the metal. Hydraulic

presses can provide higher forces than mechanical presses, and are sometimes preferred for applications that create large or

complex components. Small hydraulic presses are available for blacksmithing operations with forces starting around 10 tons

and they grow increasingly more forceful from there, with some very large presses operating in the 50,000-ton range and


    Forging Dies

    Forging presses used for closed-die forging require forging dies to properly mold the metal. Dies act as molds into which

the hot, malleable metal is pressed. Since dies are unique to each forging project, they are expensive and can lead to high

set-up costs prior to forging – forging with dies is best suited for moderate to large production runs. There are two main

types of forging dies:

    Open die: Open dies are akin to the blacksmith’s hammer and anvil and are usually available in shapes that accomplish

specific tasks such as squaring. They do not completely encase the metal, providing free flow everywhere except where the

metal meets the die. Open die forging is a good choice for custom metalworking applications as it can be used to produce as

few as a single forging. It is also useful in forging very large parts. Where a blacksmith might use tongs to grapple the hot

metal forging, many larger forgings are handled by mechanical manipulators because of their immense weight. Open die forging

depends a great deal on the skill of the forger to produce the desired shapes. In addition to producing stepped shafting,

rings, and cylindrical hollows, open die forging is often used to produce the hemispherical ends of pressure vessels.

    Closed die: Here, the metal is completely encased. When the CNC hydraulic die forging hammer or press pushes against

the metal, the metal flows and fills the die cavity or cavities. Typically, the pre-forged part will have some resemblance to

the final forging before it is placed in the die, preformed by a series of so-called blocker dies.


    This article presents a brief discussion of metal forging tools and equipment. For more information on other products,

consult our other guides or visit the Thomas Supplier Discovery Platform to locate potential sources. More information on

forging and forging equipment may be found at the Forging Industry Association website.

    Modern science and industry have accumulated many efficient methods of forming by hammer forging, such as setting with

shift or torsion, sectional forging, expansion by rolls etc. However, they are difficult for realization on forging

equipment, what hampers their adoption in industry. Hence technological conservatism in forging. Even state-off-the-art

forging complexes have brought no fundamental change into the hammer forging process.

    Within the present work we have developed a new composition structure of a forging machine suitable for conventional

operations of hammer forging as well as for new operations, unusual for hammer and press forging. The structure of the

machine, hereinafter referred to as an automated forging center (AFC) permits to solve the problems of combining external

forces, producing new shapes of deformation zones, efficient use of the tool magazine.

    Physical and mathematical simulation of technological operations have been carried out to estimate forming and forse

parameters, some results being presented in the paper.

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