Fit werden mit elektrischer Muskelstimulation (EMS)

Description:     Fit werden mit elektrischer Muskelstimulation (EMS)     Diese Stimulation erzeugt Muskelkontraktionen, die schnell und h?ufig sein k?nnen, schnell mit langen Pausen oder Kontraktionen, die für mehrere (unangenehme) Sekunden oder Minuten am Stück gehalten werden.     Normalerweise ist es Ihr K?rper, der Ihre Muskeln feuert, indem er elektrische Impulse von Ihrem Gehirn durch Ihr zentrales Nervensystem (ZNS) sendet. Aber ein EMS Ger?te erm?glicht es Ihnen, tiefe, intensive und vollst?ndige Muskelkontraktionen durchzuführen, ohne Ihr ZNS tats?chlich zu aktivieren (oder zu belasten) – ganz zu schweigen von Ihren Gelenken und Sehnen.     Das Coolste daran ist, dass dein K?rper den Unterschied zwischen einer willkürlichen und einer elektrisch stimulierten Kontraktion nicht kennt. Dein (dummer) K?rper erkennt nur, dass es einen Reiz gibt und reagiert entsprechend darauf.     Wenn das für Sie etwas verrückt klingt, machen Sie sich keine Sorgen – es gibt wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse, die dies untermauern.     Eine im Journal of Strength and Conditioning ver?ffentlichte Studie untersuchte, ob EMS Spitzensportlern helfen k?nnte, einen Leistungsvorteil zu erzielen. Sie kamen zu dem Schluss, dass ?die Analyse zeigt, dass trainierte und Spitzensportler trotz ihrer bereits hohen Fitness ihr Kraftniveau im gleichen Ma?e deutlich steigern k?nnen, wie es bei untrainierten Probanden m?glich ist.“     Zum Abschluss dieser Studie stellten die Forscher fest, dass ?EMS eine vielversprechende Alternative zum traditionellen Krafttraining bietet, um die Kraftparameter und die motorischen F?higkeiten von Sportlern zu verbessern.“     Eine weitere Studie aus dem Jahr 2015 mit dem Titel ?Auswirkungen der Hochfrequenzstromtherapie auf abdominale Fettleibigkeit bei jungen Frauen: eine randomisierte kontrollierte Studie“ liefert ein anderes Beispiel für die Wirksamkeit von EMS. Anstelle von Fitnessniveaus untersuchte diese Studie, ob EMS Ihnen helfen kann, K?rperfett zu verlieren.     In dieser Studie erhielt eine Gruppe von Probanden eine 30-minütige Hochfrequenzstromtherapie über eine Reihe von Elektroden, die auf ihren Bauch gelegt wurden. Die Probanden führten diese Sitzungen sechs Wochen lang dreimal pro Woche durch. Nach diesen sechs Wochen ma?en die Forscher den Taillenumfang, den Body-Mass-Index, die subkutane Fettmasse (Fett unter der Haut) und den Gesamtk?rperfettanteil des Probanden.     überraschenderweise hatte das EMS Ger?t Professionell, ohne ihre Bewegung oder Ern?hrung zu ?ndern, tats?chlich signifikante Auswirkungen auf die Verringerung des Taillenumfangs, der abdominalen Fettleibigkeit, der subkutanen Fettmasse und des K?rperfettanteils, was die Forscher zu dem Schluss brachte: ?Der Einsatz der Hochfrequenzstromtherapie kann vorteilhaft sein, um das Ausma? der abdominalen Fettleibigkeit bei jungen Frauen zu reduzieren.“     Ein Elektrostimulationsger?t ist ein batteriebetriebenes Ger?t, das manche Menschen zur Schmerzbehandlung verwenden. TENS-Ger?te arbeiten, indem sie kleine elektrische Impulse durch Elektroden mit Klebepads abgeben, um sie an der Haut einer Person zu befestigen. Diese elektrischen Impulse überfluten das Nervensystem und reduzieren seine F?higkeit, Schmerzsignale an das Rückenmark und das Gehirn zu übertragen. Dieselben elektrischen Impulse regen den K?rper auch an, natürliche Schmerzmittel, sogenannte Endorphine, zu produzieren. In diesem Artikel erfahren Sie mehr über die Verwendung eines TENS-Ger?ts und die Forschung zu seiner Wirksamkeit. TENS-Ger?te k?nnen bei der Behandlung der folgenden Symptome helfen:     Alle Trainingsprogramme sollten die elektrische Muskelstimulation (EMS) integrieren, um die Muskeln kr?ftig zu kontrahieren. Die besten K?pfe der Leistungssportler sind sich einig, dass EMS ein wertvolles Werkzeug ist, insbesondere auf h?chstem Leistungsniveau. Allerdings verstehen Profis in allen Sportarten – insbesondere auf h?heren Ebenen – die Anwendungen und Vorteile von EMS-Systemen nicht vollst?ndig. Viele Trainer und Trainer haben sich EMS Training Ger?te angeschafft, die Technologie aber noch nicht in ihren Alltag integriert. Mit nur wenig Wissen k?nnen Sie Ihren Sportlern helfen, gro?e Verbesserungen zu erzielen.     Sie k?nnen auf zwei Hindernisse sto?en, um EMS für die Leistungsf?higkeit und Gesundheit von Sportlern optimal zu nutzen. Erstens k?nnen Sie EMS nicht kennenlernen, ohne ein Ger?t in Ihren eigenen H?nden zu halten. Wie bei jeder Technologie müssen Sie daran herumfummeln und durch Versuch und Irrtum herausfinden, was funktioniert und was nicht. Bei einigen Stimulationsger?ten beschweren sich Verbraucher oft darüber, dass die Bedienungsanleitungen nicht den optimalen Umgang mit der Technologie vermitteln. Anstatt ein Buch über die Verwendung von Langhanteln, Massagetischen oder Laufb?ndern zu lesen, kann Ihre eigene entschlossene Praxis die beste Anwendung für jedes fragliche Werkzeug finden.     Das zweite Hindernis für die regelm??ige Anwendung von EMS zur Unterstützung der Entwicklung, Erholung und Rehabilitation von Sportlern besteht darin, dass viele Personen das Gefühl haben, dass nur zertifizierte Physiotherapeuten es verwenden k? nnen. Ihre anf?ngliche Vorsicht ist lobenswert, aber ich kann keinen guten Grund sehen, warum nur Physiotherapeuten am besten qualifiziert sind, EMS bei Sportlern anzuwenden. EMS zieht die Muskeln kr?ftig an. Ist das nicht das, was trainierende Sportler im Kraftraum, auf der Bahn und auf dem Feld t?glich selbst tun? Trainer und Kraftsportler verstehen die Prinzipien der progressiven Belastung, der Erholung und des Work-to-Ruhe-Verh?ltnisses und der sorgf?ltigen Integration mehrerer Trainingselemente in komplement?rer Weise.     Dies sind die gleichen Prinzipien, die erforderlich sind, um die EMS-Technologie mit einem Athleten zu beherrschen. Jeder Trainer, der mit der Implementierung effektiver konventioneller Trainingsprogramme vertraut ist, sollte kein Problem damit haben, den Wert und die Anwendungen von EMS für seine Athleten zu verstehen. Wir dürfen nicht die Haltung einnehmen, dass Trainer Kinder sind, denen man nicht mit solch ausgeklügelter Technologie vertraut. Die Menschen nutzen t?glich Smartphones mit einer Technologie, die tausendmal ausgefeilter ist als eine einfache EMS-Platine.     Aber bevor alle losrennen und sich ein neues EMS-Ger?t anschaffen, sollten wir mehr darüber sprechen, wie es die Vorbereitung Ihrer Athleten optimieren kann. Es gibt unendlich viele Gründe, die Technologie t?glich einzusetzen, insbesondere im Profisport, wo die Zeitpl?ne ambitioniert und die Belastung der Sportler gro? ist. Denken Sie daran, dass wir alle atmen, gehen und sprechen, weil unser Gehirn in der Lage ist, elektrische Impulse in au?ergew?hnlich koordinierter Weise durch alle Bereiche unseres K?rpers zu senden. Ohne Elektrizit?t würden wir aufh?ren, gedeihende Organismen zu sein.     Obwohl Elektrizit?t als Gefahr angesehen werden kann, kann sie in der richtigen Menge und Form effektiv zur F?rderung unserer Gesundheit und unseres Wohlbefindens eingesetzt werden. In einigen F?llen haben innovative Medizinforscher wie Dr. Bj?rn Nordenstrom wirklich erstaunliche Dinge geleistet. Dr. Nordenstrom setzte erfolgreich Elektrizit?t bei der Behandlung von Krebstumoren ein. Wir erwarten zwar nicht, dass alle EMS-Benutzer die weltweiten Gesundheitsprobleme l?sen, aber wir k? nnen erwarten, dass wir mit einigen einfachen Richtlinien einfache und effektive Wege finden, um die Muskelfunktion zu verbessern.     Hier sind sechs Gründe, warum die Sportgemeinschaft – sowohl Wettkampf- als auch Freizeitsportler – die EMS-Technologie in gro?em Umfang annehmen sollte.     Die Forschung hat bewiesen, dass EMS funktioniert. Positive Ergebnisse unterstützen den Einsatz von EMS zur Kraftsteigerung und Leistungssteigerung. Wie bei jedem Trainingstool erzielen Sie optimale Ergebnisse, wenn Sie die Technologie in Bezug auf spezifische Einstellungen, Zeitpunkte, H?ufigkeit und Gesamtarbeitsvolumen angemessen einsetzen. In F?llen, in denen EMS bei trainierten Sportlern keine Leistungssteigerungen bewirkte, setzten die Forscher die Technologie nicht angemessen in Verbindung mit einem gut organisierten Trainingsprogramm ein. Dies ist der Schlüssel. Einfach auf die Pads klopfen und den Strom hochdrehen, reicht nicht. Sie müssen klare Ziele und Zielsetzungen für EMS sowie einen Plan haben, wie und wann die Technologie eingesetzt werden soll.     Coaches maximieren den EMS-Nutzen, wenn sie die Einheiten in ein gut geplantes konventionelles Training integrieren. Viele Forschungsstudien sagen, dass die alleinige Anwendung von EMS bestenfalls den gleichen Nutzen bietet wie freiwilliges Training; dass EMS nicht besser ist als normale Trainingsmethoden. Da das EMS Training Zu Hause keine Eingaben des zentralen Nervensystems erfordert, ermüdet es das Gehirn eines bereits überforderten Sportlers nicht. Die Kombination aus konventionellem Training und EMS bietet gegenüber jeder Methode allein einen erheblichen Vorteil, da die kumulative Wirkung beider Methoden ein gesteigertes Trainingsszenario mit weniger Energiekosten für den Athleten bietet. Dies ist eine Win-Win-Situation, insbesondere wenn der Stress des Lebens und des Trainings das Nervensystem eines Sportlers überstimuliert.     Mehr als 3.500 Rettungssanit?ter, Sanit?ter und Offiziere wurden zwischen M?rz und November 2013 an dem System geschult; Nachdem alle Mitarbeiter im Au?endienst geschult wurden, ist das Tablet-System nun Teil des Curriculums der FDNY EMS Training Academy. Leutnant Kathleen Knuth und andere IT-Experten innerhalb des EMS haben ein umfangreiches Programm zur Feldschulung von Offizieren und Mitarbeitern durchgeführt und beaufsichtigen weiterhin den Telefonsupport rund um die Uhr; Knuth sagt, dass die Anzahl der Support-Anrufe zurückgegangen ist, da sich die Au?endienstmitarbeiter an das System gew?hnen. Die EMS Systeme verfügen über eine interne, zentrale Reparaturstation (sie nennen es "Depot"), die die Aufarbeitung und Wartung der Tablets übernimmt; FDNY ist es gelungen, sich von der Versendung von Hardware-Einheiten an den Hersteller zu befreien, was es der Abteilung erm?glicht, Probleme schneller zu beheben und selbst zu verfolgen, welche Software- oder Hardware-Probleme Probleme verursachen.     Um die HIPAA-Anforderungen zu erfüllen, musste FDNY sicherstellen, dass das gesamte Netzwerk sicher war, dass die Daten f ür niemanden au?er den autorisierten Personen zug?nglich waren und dass eine gründliche forensische F?higkeit – ein Audit- Trail für jeden Zugriff auf oder Drucken jeglicher Aufzeichnungen – war vorhanden. All diese Koordination und Schulung erforderte nachhaltige Arbeit sowohl mit den Anw?lten von FDNY als auch mit der IT-Abteilung. Das System wurde in New York City über einen gut umgesetzten Zeitraum von neun Monaten eingeführt (dank der beharrlichen Führung und des Projektmanagements, zuletzt von Chief Sophia Kwok). Die Patientenakten von FDNY EMS sind jetzt vollst?ndig papierlos.     Alles in allem ist das ?Mobile ePCR“-System von FDNY EMS bereits ein Erfolg. Da EMS Upgrades der Tablet-Software aus der Ferne pushen kann, k?nnen Protokolle und Checklisten für die Behandlung bei Bedarf oder Bedarf ge?ndert und Medikamente einfach hinzugefügt werden, was die pr?klinische Patientenversorgung verbessert und gleichzeitig die Wahrscheinlichkeit von Fehlern verringert; Die Tablet-Software verlangt von den Mitarbeitern, dass sie ihre Arbeit abhaken, bevor sie fortfahren k? nnen. (FDNY EMS wei? alles über Ideenfindungsprozesse von Mitarbeitern; viele ?nderungen werden basierend auf dem, was Au? endienstmitarbeiter für nützlich halten, vorgenommen.) Die bereits enormen historischen Datenbanken von FDNY EMS werden für pr?diktive Analysen und andere Zwecke immer nützlicher: Die verbesserte F?higkeit von EMS, Spotmuster und Trends k?nnen einen gro?en Einfluss auf die pr?klinische Versorgung haben. Für den Anfang kann EMS jetzt den Anruftyp, der einem 911-Kontakt zugewiesen ist (basierend auf dem, was ein Anrufer unter emotionalem Druck sagt), mit der Krankheit oder Beschwerde vergleichen, die EMS tats?chlich findet, wenn er am Tatort eintrifft; zu wissen, wie Menschen dazu neigen, das Geschehen falsch zu beschreiben, kann EMS helfen, die Anforderungen der Telefonisten an die Anrufer zu ?ndern. Bessere Daten, bessere Callcenter-Skripte, bessere Patientenergebnisse.     Einundzwanzig Krankenh?user in der ganzen Stadt k?nnen ihren Mitarbeitern jetzt grundlegende Informationen (und die voraussichtliche Ankunftszeit) für Patienten anzeigen, die noch unterwegs sind, und diese Mitarbeiter wissen jetzt, welche Schritte das Rettungsteam bereits unternommen hat. viele weitere Krankenh?user übernehmen das System stetig. Das Krankenhauspersonal ist laut Chef Nahmod begeistert von dieser Entwicklung: "Das ist das Beste, was Sie je gemacht haben", sagt er.     Aber Chief Nahmod wei?, dass mit besserer Konnektivit?t noch viel mehr m?glich w?re. Im Moment senden die Tablets nur Daten und nur von den (normalerweise) Au?enstandorten auf Stra?enebene, an die das drahtlose Signal von NYCWin gelangt. Künftig soll ein Rettungssanit?ter – ?Ich stehe hier allein und brauche Hilfe“, stellt sich Chef Nahmod den Sanit?ter- Spruch vor – soll in der Lage sein, ein Video des pr?klinischen Patienten an Experten zu streamen und die Gruppe zu sich kommen zu lassen schneller Konsens darüber, welche Behandlung sinnvoll ist, direkt vor Ort. Das ist Telemedizin, und das wird nur mit allgegenw?rtigen Glasfaserkabeln m?glich sein, zu denen die Ger?te der EMTs über eng beieinander liegende Hotspots übertragen. Glasfaserrichtlinie ist Wireless-Richtlinie, und New York City hat noch einen Weg vor sich – insbesondere in den Au?enbezirken.     Nahmod ist verst?ndlicherweise stolz auf das, was sein Team bisher erreicht hat. ?Wir lernen aus dem, was wir jetzt wissen“, sagt er. Wenn Sie der Patient sind, wissen Sie nicht, welche st?dtische Abteilung Sie behandelt, und Sie erwarten, dass alle in Kontakt sind und auf der Grundlage derselben genauen Informationen handeln. Mit besseren und viel aktuelleren Daten, immer genaueren und gezielteren Interventionen und der Koordination mit den anderen medizinischen Systemen, denen die Patienten begegnen, treibt FDNY EMS das Land in eine telemedizinische Zukunft.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/25

What Is Quartz Made Of — And What Are The Pros and Cons of a Quartz Countertop?

Description:     What Is Quartz Made Of — And What Are The Pros and Cons of a Quartz Countertop?             If you’re in the market for a new kitchen countertop, you likely have one burning question: What is quartz made of? And then also these: Is quartz expensive? Is it durable? What are the pros and cons. Etc! So many questions! See, quartz has gotten incredibly popular over the last 10 years or so. Yet, people don’t really know much about it. Let’s take a look!             What is Quartz Made Of?                     Artificial quartz stone countertops are man-made engineered stone countertops formed by combining around 90 percent ground quartz (a natural hard mineral) with eight to 10 percent resins, polymers, and pigments. This forms a very hard granite-like surface. The appearance depends on how the quartz is ground: coarsely ground quartz produces a flecked appearance, while finely ground quartz produces a smooth look.                   What are the Major Brands of Quartz Countertops?             The Italian company Breton owns the patent to manufacture solid surfaces from quartz and resins. All other companies use that patent for their own brand of quartz countertops, including Silestone, Corian, Cambria, CaesarStone, Avanza, and Technistone.             What’s the Environmental Impact of Quartz?                     Light to moderate! Quartz is the second most abundant material in the earth’s crust (which is good), but the acrylic resins used in quartz countertops are petroleum by-products, and they often contain alumina trihydrate fillers made from bauxite ore, which is mined primarily under toxic conditions in developing countries. However, the countertops are still extremely durable and non-porous. Additionally, a few major brands including Formica, Wilsonart and Silestone have been certified by GreenGuard as low emitting. Other brands, like Cambria Quartz, are mined and made entirely in the USA.     Calacatta and Carrara quartz are among the most preferable options for countertops today. With their clean white shade and beautiful veining, they blend well with any kitchen design and amplify the look of the interior. Perfect addition for both commercial and residential spaces, these quartz can be installed as kitchen countertops, waterfall islands, or even as bath vanity tops and vanity sinks.     Both Calacatta quartz and Carrara quartz are inspired by the look of natural marble and hold a replicative resemblance. Some mutual characteristics of these quartz countertops are white, light grey, or beige background, with dark shade veining, fine or bold. They feature such a classic and always highly desirable look. However, there are some differences between the two quartz. Let’s see what those are.     Quartz calacatta: It consists of bolder, more dramatic, wider, and darker grey veining over a serene white base. It’s perfect for interior designers and homeowners who are looking for a powerful focal point in the kitchen. Due to its seamless design pattern, this quartz countertop is apt for installation as a waterfall island.     Carrara quartz: While Carrara Quartz features soft, subtle, very fine, and delicate veins and usually seems to be in blue-grey color. The veining is so fine that it almost disappears and merges in the background. When you place both these quartz sides by side, you will notice that Carrara quartz has a much granier pattern than that of Calacatta Quartz.     Imperial Vanities has a classic collection of prefabricated Carrara and Calacatta Quartz countertops that could embellish the space and fit well in any interior design project.     Among many cabinet countertop materials, quartz stone has become the preferred surface material. Quartz stone is an artificial stone surface material die-casted by a quartz stone manufacturer through equipment, and later made into a quartz stone countertop by a stone processor.     Nowadays, the quartz stone market is chaotic, the quality is uneven, and the price of quartz stone varies from high to low. How to choose a quality quartz stone countertop in this situation? We can start from the following points.     Before buying, we should do a good job of positioning, that is, we should clarify our real needs, and don't buy with the trend. Because the price of quartz stone is much higher than other surface materials, if it is more limited, it is better to give up buying quartz stone and choose other materials to prevent buying low-quality plates. Quartz stone is artificially pressed by 93% quartz sand and resin. Inferior plates may use other materials as fillers or use other binders. This type of plate has certain harm to the human body and should be purchased with care.     First of all, we should choose branded quartz stone, which has a certain guarantee for quality.     Furthermore, choose the color of the quartz stone according to the color of the cabinet panel. Most of the countertops are made of monochrome quartz. Simple patterns are better. If it is too fancy, it will easily dazzle the viewer and lose the distinction between primary and secondary.     The last is to check the quality of the board, such as hardness, odor, penetration and acid resistance and so on.     The Basic Process     Although the process varies based on the source, the basic formula involves irradiating the stones at 60 megarads (mrd) with cobalt 60, X-rays, or electrons. The material will return from the lab an opaque black or brown. Then, heat the stones in a household toaster oven to 650° F. Household ovens list their maximum temperature as 550° F. However, if you leave the oven temperature at the maximum setting for long periods, the temperature will rise above the rated settings. If the economics justify it, a glass door laboratory furnace makes a better tool. Since each individual piece will change color at a different time, seeing the heating action is absolutely necessary.     You can modify the basic process to achieve different effects, depending on the quartz source. In some instances, you might only achieve a quartz color by first destroying the existing color center. This requires heating the crystal until it’ s clear or white at temperatures up to 550° F. If you exceed this temperature, you risk creating an opaque, opalized stone. In other words, the quartz turns to a milky consistency resembling a common opal.     If heating to 550° F doesn’t achieve the quartz color you want, try increasing the radiation dosage or subject the work piece to a different type of irradiation. For example, a quartz that goes to a straw yellow color on cobalt 60 might turn canary when exposed to electrons. Again, the color you might achieve depends on the material’s origin.     Below, you’ll find some results and individual treatment processes.     Smoky Quartz     All quartz can be irradiated to create the morion variety of smoky quartz. Additionally, all quartz will turn a blackish or brownish color on exposure to 0.5 to 1.5 mrd of cobalt 60, gamma, X-ray, or electron radiation. However, this won ’t yield uniform color.     If that’s your goal, first irradiate then separate the lighter ones for re-irradiation at a higher dosage. Next, separate those with the optimum color. Heat the stones that come back opaque black in a household toaster oven until you reach the desired shade.     Except for this post irradiation heating step, the lab process involves little heat or static electricity. Thus, you can treat included material. The maximum temperature the quartz will be exposed to during the irradiation process is 400° F.     Arkansas Quartz (USA)     I tested stones from various areas of this deposit. None took color. I just treated them all to smoky quartz.     Milky (Silk) Quartz     After testing stones from numerous locations in Brazil, the United States, and other nations, I found that, apparently, all hazy quartz with silk-like inclusions, no matter what intensity, will treat. This includes natural rose quartz. Common results ranged from various yellows, an occasional orange cast, to an occasional greenish cast.     In some cases, you can cook out the silk through pre-irradiation heating. In other cases, you can dissolve it during the irradiation process. You can even observe the lessening of the silk in the final heating step. However, some silk won’t dissolve during this heating process. Use caution when performing this step. The crystal may shatter during heating. This material seemed to reach its maximum color saturation at a dosage of 60 mrd. Again, different types of radiation produce different shades of color.     Controlling Your Milky Quartz Color Results During Heating     During the final heating process, you can control the color somewhat. After you’ve irradiated the stones, spread them evenly on your toaster oven rack or a perforated baking sheet. (You must allow air to circulate freely around the stones, so don’t place them on a regular cookie sheet). Set your toaster oven to maximum temperature, then wait patiently.     By continuously observing through the glass door, you’ll see the stones change color from an opaque black. Remember, each stone may change at a different time. Larger crystals require more heating time. Therefore, size grade and heat stones of one size together to operate more efficiently.     Keep in mind that most ovens reach hotter temperatures front to back. You might try putting larger crystals on the last row to better observe them. So, while they’re still heating, you can remove the faster turning smaller crystals in the front row.     Starting from a cold oven, expect to wait about two to eight hours for the crystals to turn. The transition can go from opaque black to slightly transparent brownish black, to greenish yellow, to canary yellow. This material changes slowly, so you have plenty of time to remove them at the desired color. Again, a glass door comes in handy. You can observe the quartz color change without constantly opening and closing the oven, which will delay the process.     Once you’re happy with a stone’s color, remove it with metal tongs and set it on a metal cooling tray. If you leave the stones in at maximum temperature for very long periods, they can fade to light yellow and eventually revert to white.     Reducing Breakage     This is quite a hands-on heating process. Keep the opening and closing of the oven door to a minimum. Thermal shock will occur if too much cool air enters the oven chamber. However, you can’t avoid this completely. Expect some breakage but take steps to minimize it.     Wait until a good number of stones have turned to a desired shade. Then, shut off your oven and let it cool to room temperature by cracking the door slightly. If you don’t vent the oven, the temperature will continue to rise and overheat your stones. Luckily, if you do overheat, all is not lost. Simply re-irradiate and start the process all over.     Caramel Quartz     If you treat quartz from various locations, you’ll likely encounter this type. I found three mines in the Arasuai area of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil that produce caramel quartz. None of the stones showed any identifying inclusions. I don ’t believe they occur well-formed. They were presented to me in broken crystals or in cobbed form. One location produced only crystals up to 30 grams. The other two produced crystals of 1 to 2 kilos.     I irradiated and heated these stones using the milky quartz process I’ve described above. However, they have a different color transition. They go from opaque black to slightly transparent brownish to reddish or orangish brown. With continued heating, some eventually went pure orange. These stones required longer heating times. Some crystals, however, stayed brownish orange even after two days of heating. I expect they might go pure orange at a higher temperature than I could achieve with a toaster oven.     One mine produced stones with a transition to pure orange. They went from black to a brownish orange and then turned a golden orange.     Neon Green Quartz     Two adjacent mines just outside of the village of Itacambira, Minas Gerais, Brazil produce quartz of widely varying colors. These stones range from golden and neon green (limon) to bicolors and tricolors of golden and black or brownish. You ’ll also find green, black, or brownish. Both mines yield very clean to flawless crystals up to about 100 grams maximum. These elongated crystals have unusual 10-sided terminations.     You irradiate these as you would other quartz, but the similarity ends there. Their heating process is quite involved and difficult. The crystals return from the lab opaque black. Start heating them at a lower temperature of 350° F. This way, you’ll have the time to take out the maximum number of green ones, which are most valuable. The crystals go from black opaque to a slight transparency in the center only. Just the center will lighten and turn green. The two ends will remain opaque black or slightly transparent brown or black.     Creating Pure Green Stones     Unlike milky quartz, quartz pure color lasts from a matter of seconds to a maximum of a minute or two. Therefore, you must remove these stones quickly from the heat as they change. If you delay, the centers will turn a golden yellow color. At that point, you’ll have a tricolor stone with a green center and blackish ends. If you take too long, you’ll have a tricolor with a golden yellow center.     To create a strictly green product line, at the first removal step, saw or cob away the two ends. Keep them separate. Next, put all the sawed sections of crystals, from the end away from the termination, back in the oven. Now, these pieces can also turn green. Again, heat them to 350° F so the change from blackish will be more gradual. If you heat them at a higher temperature, like 550° F, you’ll have more difficulties removing the green ones before they change to golden.     After you’ve finished processing the ends away from the termination, process the terminated ends. These will all have slight inclusions right on their tips. Saw or knock them off. When heated, these go mainly golden. While you might have a small portion of green stones, it’s impossible to catch the green and golden together, because the green comes out at a lower temperature. Right at the termination, you won’t get any green first. It goes straight to golden. If you overheat at any step, simply re-irradiate and repeat the process.     Red Quartz     When irradiated, all milky or rose quartz will treat to various shades of yellow, from golden to canary. There is very little difference between rose quartz and clear quartz. However, submicroscopic inclusions of dumortierite create the color of rose quartz. This borosilicate mineral, usually blue or pink, contains titanium.     A deposit just outside the small city of Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in an area called Ganga Rosa, produces rose quartz crystals. To the best of my knowledge, only Ganga Rosa yields rose quartz in terminated crystals. These crystals can occur anywhere from colorless, to a hint of pink, to a fine rose color. For irradiation coloring purposes, it doesn’t seem to matter if you begin with well-saturated or clear pieces. Simply dose this material to 60 mrd. The subsequent heat treatment can vary depending on the location of the material.     Ganga Rosa Quartz and Irradiation     So far, my testing shows that quartz achieves its full saturation at a dose of around 60 megarads. Higher dosage serves no purpose, except for the Ganga Rosa material. While other irradiated quartz stones return from the lab opaque black and need heating, Ganga Rosa turns strawberry red at 60 mrd, with medium to light intensity. No subsequent heating is necessary. The higher the radiation dosage, the darker the color.     My experiments were limited to gamma radiation, using cobalt 60 and X-rays in the form of residual irradiation. During the X-ray testing, I noted that the material continued to darken. I placed crystals just outside of the direct beam cylinder at a linear accelerator laboratory. Then, the material inside the cylinder received a dosage at 24 MEV of 5,000-10,000 mrd electrons.     While I couldn’t gauge exactly what dosage the exterior area containing the quartz received, I estimate it at several thousand mrd at an accelerated dosage rate, at least. As the laboratory explained, this residual irradiation is X-ray (gamma) only. Undoubtedly, with higher dosage, we could reach a color intensity as dark as ruby. Note that, most likely, you can ’t overdose this material. You can heat back all irradiated materials in stages on low temperature treatments.     I observed another interesting effect with Ganga Rosa quartz with attached calcite (or more likely a calcite pseudomorph). With irradiation, this attached mineral goes black, as you would assume a quartz would do but not a calcite. This can create an interesting bicolor effect in some of the pieces.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/25

Titanium is the perfect metal to make replacement human body parts

Description:     Titanium is the perfect metal to make replacement human body parts         Titanium material is expensive and can be problematic when it comes to traditional processing technologies. For example, its high melting point (1,670℃, much higher than steel alloys) is a challenge.     The relatively low-cost precision of 3D printing is therefore a game-changer for titanium. 3D printing is where an object is built layer by layer and designers can create amazing shapes.     This allows the production of complex shapes such as replacement parts of a jaw bone, heel, hip, dental implants, or cranioplasty plates in surgery. It can also be used to make golf clubs and aircraft components.     The CSIRO is working with industry to develop new technologies in 3D printing using titanium. (It even made a dragon out of titanium.)     Advances in 3D printing are opening up new avenues to further improve the function of customised bodypart implants made of titanium.     Such implants can be designed to be porous, making them lighter but allowing blood, nutrients and nerves to pass through and can even promote bone in-growth.     Safe in the body     Titanium is considered the most biocompatible metal – not harmful or toxic to living tissue – due to its resistance to corrosion from bodily fluids. This ability to withstand the harsh bodily environment is a result of the protective oxide film that forms naturally in the presence of oxygen.     Its ability to physically bond with bone also gives titanium an advantage over other materials that require the use of an adhesive to remain attached. Titanium implants last longer, and much larger forces are required to break the bonds that join them to the body compared with their alternatives.     Titanium alloys commonly used in load-bearing implants are significantly less stiff – and closer in performance to human bone – than stainless steel or cobalt-based alloys.     Aerospace applications     Titanium weighs about half as much as steel but is 30% stronger, which makes it ideally suited to the aerospace industry where every gram matters.     In the late 1940s the US government helped to get production of titanium going as it could see its potential for “aircraft, missiles, spacecraft, and other military purposes”.     Titanium has increasingly become the buy-to-fly material for aircraft designers striving to develop faster, lighter and more efficient aircraft.     About 39% of the US Air Force’s F22 Raptor, one of the most advanced fighter aircraft in the world, is made of titanium.     Civil aviation moved in the same direction with Boeing’s new 787 Dreamliner made of 15% titanium, significantly more than previous models.     Two key areas where titanium is used in airliners is in their landing gear and jet engines. Landing gear needs to withstand the massive amounts of force exerted on it every time a plane hits a runway.     Titanium’s toughness means it can absorb the huge amounts of energy expelled when a plane lands without ever weakening.     Titanium’s heat resistance means it can be used inside modern jet engines, where temperatures can reach 800℃. Steel begins to soften at around 400℃ but titanium can withstand the intense heat of a jet engine without losing its strength.     Where to find titanium     In its natural state, titanium is always found bonded with other elements, usually within igneous rocks and sediments derived from them.     The most commonly mined materials containing titanium are ilmenite (an iron-titanium oxide, FeTiO3) and rutile (a titanium oxide, TiO2).     Ilmenite is most abundant in China, whereas Australia has the highest global proportion of rutile, about 40% according to Geoscience Australia. It’s found mostly on the east, west and southern coastlines of Australia.     Both materials are generally extracted from sands, after which the titanium is separated from the other minerals.     Australia is one of the world’s leading producers of titanium, producing more than 1.5 million tonnes in 2014. South Africa and China are the two next leading producers of titanium, producing 1.16 and 1 million tonnes, respectively.     Being among the top ten most abundant elements in Earth’s crust, titanium resources aren’t currently under threat – good news for the many scientists and innovators constantly looking for new ways to improve life with titanium.     Titanium Forgings Shapes     Titanium forgings refer to products manufactured by the process of shaping metal utilizing compressive forces. The compressive forces used are generally delivered via pressing, pounding, or squeezing under great pressure. Although there are many different kinds of forging processes available, they can be grouped into three main classes:     Forging produces pieces that are stronger than an equivalent cast or machined part. As the metal is shaped during the forging process, the internal grain deforms to follow the general shape of the part. This results in a grain that is continuous throughout the part, resulting in its high strength characteristics. Forgings are broadly classified as either cold, warm or hot forgings, according to the temperature at which the processing is performed.     Iron and steel are nearly always hot forged, which prevents the work hardening that would result from cold forging. Work hardening increases the difficulty of performing secondary machining operations on the metal pieces. When work hardening is desired, other methods of hardening, most notably heat treating, may be applied to the piece. Alloys such as aluminum and titanium that are amenable to precipitation hardening can be hot forged, followed by hardening. Because of their high strength, forgings are almost always used where reliability and human safety are critical such as in the aerospace, automotive, ship building, oil drilling, engine and petrochemical industries.     For more information or to receive a prompt aluminum price quote, please contact us at 800 398-4345 or submit the Request Information form on the right side of this page.     Titanium rod and bar are made from a corrosion-resistant material that has one of the highest strength-to-weight ratios of all metals. Due to the wear resistance, corrosion resistance, high-temperature resistance, and non-magnetic properties of titanium rods, it is used in the main parts of equipment, shaft body, solid parts, mixing shaft, etc.     Titanium Rods’ Characteristics     In addition, titanium rods have the characteristics of high strength, good toughness, low modulus of elasticity, compatibility with the human body, and are widely used in the medical industry.     The forging material of the titanium rod is mainly pure titanium and titanium alloy of various compositions, and the original state of the material is titanium rod, titanium ingot, metal powder, and liquid metal.     The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the metal before deformation to the cross-sectional area after deformation is called the forging ratio. Proper selection of forging ratio, reasonable heating temperature and holding time, reasonable initial forging temperature, and final forging temperature, reasonable deformation, and deformation speed is closely related to improving product quality and reducing cost.     Generally, small and medium-sized forgings use round or square bars as blanks. If the grain structure and mechanical properties of the bar are uniform and good, the shape and size are accurate, and the surface quality is good, it is convenient for mass production. As long as the heating temperature and deformation conditions are properly controlled, high- quality forgings can be forged without requiring large forging deformation.     On the aircraft, titanium alloy is mainly used to manufacture the main force members such as girders, landing gears, hubs, and joints. Titanium alloy is mainly used to manufacture adapter rings, scraper fans, compressor discs, and blades on the engine.     In the metalworking world, every metal part possesses its own unique set of benefits. No matter what industry you’re in, it’s important to know the benefits of different metal components so that you can choose the part that will be the most valuable for your specific project. One metal part that is used in various industries for it’s advantages is titanium tubing! What are the benefits of titanium tubing? Keep reading to find out!     4 Benefits of Titanium Pipe and Tube     1. Lower Density     The density of Titanium pipe and tube is significantly lower than steel, copper, or nickel products. Despite their low density, they are very strong and rigid when compared to other alloy components.     2. Resistant to Corrosion     Another benefit of utilizing titanium tubing is that titanium alloys are resistant to corrosion. This makes these tubes an appealing option if you need a part to work efficiently in a highly corrosive environment.      3. Resistant to Chemicals      Corrosion is not the only thing that titanium tubes are resistant to. They are also resistant to chemicals. These titanium parts can withstand different chemical compounds while still preforming effectively.      4. Great Heat Transfer Properties     Titanium tubes have great heat transfer properties thanks to its thermal conductivity and resistance. The same can’t be said for copper and carbon steel tubes. Their resistance to heat also allows them to work successfully at temperatures up to 600 degrees or higher.     These are just a few of the many benefits that come from utilizing titanium tubes. Because of these benefits, you can find titanium tubing in countless important industries such as power generation, sporting goods, marine, nuclear, and paper industries.     If you’re interested in using titanium tubes for your next project, Ferralloy, Inc. can help! We also have the infrastructure and facilities to supply raw materials in numerous grades and forms! Visit our metalworking foundry online today!         Titanium is sliver grey, colored transition metal found in abundance among all minerals. Titanium has high melting point and offers very good corrosion resistant property, heat properties and strength to weight ratio. Titanium is extracted from ores of rutile and ilmenite. Aerospace & aviation industry is the major end user of the titanium product.     Titanium is used in production of super light high speed aircrafts, satellites and spacecrafts, and ships. Apart from aerospace & aviation, some other major end user industries of titanium products include paper, plastic, and paints & coatings.     Titanium products are also popular in various healthcare applications such as pacemakers, and defibrillators due to chemical properties of titanium such as inertness to UV rays and self-cleaning properties.     Based on the different product type, the global titanium products market can be broadly categorized as titanium concentrate, titanium tetrachloride, titanium sponge, ferrotitanium, titanium pigment and other. Based on the various applications of the titanium product, the market can be segmented in seven broad categories namely, aerospace & marine, industrial, medical, energy, pigments, additives & coatings, and others.     Rising demand of titanium products in aircraft carriers, defense equipments and various other chemical processing industries such as oil and gas is driving the global titanium product market. Moreover, the recent development in cost effective manufacturing technology coupled with superior weight-to strength ratio compare to some of the other traditional product such as steel is expected to boost the market in upcoming years.      Unavailability of raw material, fluctuating price of input materials, and high cost of titanium product are some of the major challenge for the titanium product market.     North America is the largest market of titanium product followed by the Europe and Asia pacific. Asia Pacific is the fasted growing market. The major end user industry such as healthcare, power, automotive and aerospace industries of the titanium product is growing which in turns helping the titanium product market in this region.     Some of the major companies operating in global titanium products market include, Huntsman International, DuPont, Ineos, Iluka Resources Ltd., Sumitomo Corporation VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation., Toho Titanium Co., Ltd., RTI International Metals, Allegheny Technologies Incorporated, Titanium Metal Corporation., Tronox Limited (U.S)., Indian Rare Earths Limited (India)., and Sierra Rutile Limited (U.K)     Titanium is a well-known material to be characterised as flammable under certain morphologies. Titanium and its alloys have a great affinity for oxygen and will form a native 2-7 nm TiO2 layer instantly if a clean metallic surface is exposed to air at room temperature. This film prevents further oxidation from taking place and protects the underlying metal powder. When heat is applied, either through a thermal source or a spark, the powder can generally or locally heat to the point of thermal runaway or burning. The consensus mechanism of self-sustaining thermal runaway of titanium powder occurs by means of ion diffusion through this native TiO2 film on the titanium powder . As the micron size of the powder decreases, the specific surface area (in units of m2/g) increases at a rate of 6/d where d=particle diameter. In context, to fill a typical AM machine with 45 kg of titanium powder, with an average particle size of 20 μm, this powder will have enough surface area to cover over 3000 m2. Generally, titanium powders with a particle size < 45 μm are considered a flammability hazard.     When describing a reaction of any metal powder, there are three categories into which each reaction may fall: 1)  stagnant, 2) freely aspirated and 3) conveyed. Stagnant powder reactions generally are a result of powder that collects on a horizontal surface and ignition is typically from a heat source, as a more significant source is necessary to ignite a stagnant bed of powder. When powder is dispersed in the air, the fine powders may stay aloft creating a cloud. Aspiration of powder, and specifically titanium powder, does not automatically mean the cloud will ignite spontaneously. However, if the temperature threshold or spark energy necessary for ignition is met, rapid oxidation of powder can occur as it mixes with oxygen from the air. This is a result of no thermal heat sink of other powders or materials in near proximity to the powder cloud allowing it to reach a much higher temperature and propagate to other powders, which may result in a large pressure increase and possible explosion.     Ignition can come from a variety of sources, which will be discussed throughout this article. Thermal exposure to temperatures of 300-700°C can cause ignition of titanium powder despite the native oxide layer (i.e., minimum ignition temperature or MIT). Spark ignition can come from a variety of sources including static electricity build-up, electric components and friction/impact of metal components. Titanium powder can have minimum (spark) ignition energies (MIE) of 3-30 mJ.     Powder production     After atomisation, Titanium powder is traditionally collected in a cyclone system. These powders are typically non-passivated. The transfer of these non-passivated powders from the atomisation cyclone to ancillary process containers is considered to present a high risk of thermal runaway, which may require breaking of the inert gas seal and exposure to oxygen with high potential for powder aspiration. To overcome this problem, non-passivated powder requires exposure to air (or a reactive gas) to passivate at room temperature, a very time consuming and potentially dangerous process. As an example, passivation of 215 kg of aluminium powder was conducted in a powder collection canister after atomisation, requiring a 20 hour cool down (below MIT), followed by a 1.5 hour passivation period . While canisters can be isolated and moved for passivation, this process concentrates a large quantity of nascent surface powders (i.e. highly reactive) in a confined vessel, which is not ideal.     A novel passivation approach     As a solution to this problem, Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc. uses a novel in-situ passivation process that prevents further oxidation of the powder during exposure to air, thus minimising any exothermic reaction, thereby greatly diminishing the possibility of thermal runaway or burning of powder. Using Praxair’s in-situ process, titanium powders are passivated prior to reaching the cyclone collection and are deemed safe to handle after dropping below the aforementioned MIT (300-700° C in air). This not only increases the productivity of titanium powder production, but also greatly diminishes the hazards of the powder.     The ability to add a specific passivation layer to the titanium powder without greatly affecting the powder making process requires the formation of an oxide shell in-situ after the powders initially solidify and descend downwards within the atomisation chamber. The most important aspect of in-situ passivation is the generation of a layer similar (in thickness and chemistry) to the native oxide film that will form on the surface of titanium at room temperature (i.e., a 2-7 nm thick oxide) . Oxide thickness becomes extremely important because of the extremely large surface area described above. Ideally, the total oxygen content should stay below 1300 ppmw (0.13 wt.%) for a 20 μm particle, which requires a target titanium oxide thickness of ~2-3 nm if the bulk material contains less than 1000 ppmw of O2. If the target oxide shell thickness of 1-3 nm can be produced then no additional oxidation should take place when exposed to air at room temperature for extended periods of time.     The post-processing of titanium powder undoubtedly will utilise electrical equipment from sieves, blenders, feeders, etc. This challenge also presents itself to users of AM equipment. When considering electrical installations involving any flammable substance, it is highly recommended to reference National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, particularly articles 500 to 504. These sections describe the recommended best installation practices for electrical equipment in the presence of a hazardous material. Class II is relevant to combustible dusts (e.g., metal powders) and, within Class II locations, there are Divisions I and II. To determine which division a process/material may fall into, the reader is directed to read these descriptions carefully.

Publish Date: 2021/08/25

PHOTOLUMINESCENT POWDER INTRODUCTION

Description:     PHOTOLUMINESCENT POWDER INTRODUCTION     Photoluminescent powder, also known as pigment, is a non-toxic, non-radioactive new environmentally friendly alkaline earth aluminate pigment. Most of the visible or UV light will charge the pigment particles (excitation). The photo luminescent pigment then releases energy for 10 to 24 hours in the form of visible light (which glows in the dark). The photographic light-emitting pigments provide duty-cycle operation with a very high ratio of glow time to the desired charging time. Luminous intensity (brightness) and afterglow time than the traditional ZnS (zinc sulfide) or usually sold retail store products more than 30 times higher.                 Photoluminescent Powder Characteristics                           Safe for normal uses as it contains no radioactive or toxic materials.                                             Long glow time. Compared with previous photo storage materials, it has up to 50 times longer emission (glow) time.                                             High initial brilliance. Initial luminance of up to 40,000 mcd/m2.                         High durability. Long shelf life if the crystalline structure is not damaged.                                             Outdoor usage. Suitable for outdoor usage as it does not suffer luminance reduction even when placed under a 300-watt high-pressure mercury lamp for 1000 hours.                                             Stable Chemical Reaction. Not-encapsulated powder is stable as it is resistant to most anhydrous chemicals, both organic and inorganic. However, it will decompose into metal oxide and lose its luminance when brought into contact with water. Waterproof powder should be used for high water content mediums such as kids water paint. Most resin, epoxy, silicone and acrylic paints can be used with our not-encapsulated pigment and brighter pigment.                         Temperature Resistance:                             High Temperatures. The performance and brilliance remain stable under temperature of nearly 1100 degrees Fahrenheit (600℃).                             No decrease in performance even when tested at temperatures of -40 degrees Fahrenheit (-40℃). High durability.                 How bright are these glow products?                                         Many photoluminescent pigments and products manufacturers refer to the extinction time of their products, which is defined as the time required for afterglow to be reduced to 1 masb (0.032 mcd / m2, or about 100 times the human perception limit). In practice, it is very difficult, unless your eyes are completely dark to adapt, and you are in a completely dark environment. For practical purposes, the brightness of one to two millimeters per square meter is a more appropriate limit for life safety applications, even if a smoke-free environment is assumed. Therefore, the zinc sulfide product may take 30 to 45 minutes after its excitation source is extinguished. On the other hand, the afterglow of strontium aluminate products can be seen for days or even longer. All PhotoLuminescent Powder are based on strontium aluminate. At the other end of the time scale, strontium aluminate products can provide surprising initial afterglow. For example, four inches of square material from the magazine page can provide enough light, at least in the first minute. In addition, the microprism retroreflector and other brightness enhancement techniques can increase the brightness of the material several times.     Are Photoluminescent Exit and Egress Signs OSHA Compliant?     Most people can figure out how to exit a building in normal circumstances. But add fear and an emergency, and normal tasks suddenly become difficult. Darkness after losing power and a fire’s smoke make everything worse. This is why it’s so essential to make egress—the act of escaping a building—simple and easy. And glow in the dark exit signs that are approved by OSHA are one way of lighting the way to safety.     In this article, we look at the requirements from OSHA, NFPA, and the IBC for the listing and performance of photoluminescent signs. These mandates include the need for proper light sources, glow duration, and legibility from a distance.     Feel free to skip to the sections on:             The basics of photoluminescent exit signs and egress markers                     Listing requirements from IBC, NFPA 101, and others for photoluminescent signs                     Are photoluminescent signs OSHA-compliant?             Installing, inspecting, and testing photoluminescent safety signs     The basics of photoluminescent exit signs and egress markers     Effective means of egress are described and regulated by multiple model building and safety codes. The National Fire Protection Association’s NFPA 101: Life Safety Code (2018 edition) is one key document. Another is the International Building Code (IBC, 2018 edition), which has been incorporated into the building codes of every U.S. state.     Proper signage is a key part of emergency preparedness, which is why you see light-up “EXIT” signs everywhere. Smaller egress markers, which often have arrows indicating direction and pictographs of a running man, are also common. These give directions in confusing parts of a building or where exit signs are far apart. All signs have to work well in the dark and without main power, so NFPA 101 and IBC both have specific requirements for backup illumination.     Photoluminescent signs (aka “glow-in-the-dark signs”) are a useful technology for exit and egress signage. They glow without a dedicated power source. Instead, they absorb the energy of light from normally well-lit surroundings—often a particular wavelength of light—and release it over time as a glow. The brightness of their glow diminishes after the charging light source is removed, but glow in the dark signs that are NFPA-, IBC-, and OSHA-compliant remain visible long enough to get people to safety.     Photoluminescent signs can be used as egress markers and exit signs as long as they meet the necessary performance standards. Indeed, many egress markers (being smaller and more common than exit signs) must be self- luminescent—electric illumination won’t do.     PVC Signage     Let’s be clear and as non-technical as possible in the description of PVC signs. The chemicals and the molecular makeup are the same as the pipe referred to in the opening of this article. The best way to help in differentiating the two as that the signs are more lightweight and porous, meaning full of pores. How does this translate to what you want to know? With all those tiny little pores in a PVC sign, it means it will accept liquids. In your case, it means they can accept ink, and thus we can create graphics on the sign you want for your company.       PVC signs have a matte finish, which means it eliminates glare or reflection. It makes your graphics easier to read. If you really feel you want a shinier gloss finish, we can do a decal print and affix it to your sign.     Brushed aluminium signs     If you’re looking for long-lasting outdoor signs, brushed aluminium material may be just what you need. They’re strong but lightweight and are quite durable. They can be cut to any shape or size and is quite popular due to their resistance to bending and water. What’s more, brushed aluminium signed to give your designs a stunning silver metallic finish.     This type of material is great for both indoor and outdoor advertisements, as well as decorative pieces. It is often the preferred option for wayfinding signs, making them perfect for offices, waiting rooms, or reception areas.     Painted aluminium signs     These are the same as brushed aluminium signs , except they have a smooth, painted finish. These are made from two synthetic plates with a hard di-bond door. They are extremely sturdy, yet surprisingly lightweight.     We suggest using this material when designing a panel for a sale or special offer. Just like brushed aluminium, this material is water-resistant and difficult to bend. This makes it perfect for outdoor promotion.     When you’re designing a custom interior sign, you have several options for materials, including plastic, wood, glass, and a handful of metals. Ideally, you’ll choose a material that best reflects your brand or the message of your sign. If that material is stainless steel, you’re in luck. Stainless steel signs signal strength and industriousness to your clients. If your business is about offering protection, stability, or innovation, stainless steel can help communicate that to customers. Plus, it offers five other excellent advantages we’ll detail below.     1. Eye-Catching Shine     Stainless steel is a highly reflective metal that gives off a pleasant shine. It helps catch people’s attention, especially when it is also the focal point of a room, as a lobby sign or other custom interior sign should be. If you use stainless steel for an outdoor sign, a sunny day will charmingly light it up.     2. Longevity     As stainless steel is rust and corrosion resistant you can use it for both outdoor and indoor signs. You can expect a long life out of these signs, as long as you occasionally maintain them. When you need to invest in a permanent sign that will broadcast your brand for the long-haul, choose stainless steel.     3. Cost-Effective Metal     Stainless steel is quite cost effective as a sign material, especially as compared to other metals. Bronze, gold and copper, or fake versions of these metals, can be more expensive. With a stainless steel sign, you get the benefits of metal without the disadvantages.     4. Completely Customizable     Many custom indoor signs need to be just that, very custom. If you’re thinking of an unusual shape, unique font or another uncommon design choice, stainless steel can be manufactured to fit your unique vision exactly.     5. Just Add a Bit of Steel     You don’t need to make a whole sign out of stainless steel. This material is a “neutral” that can be combined with several other materials to great effect. Consider adding stainless steel lettering on a plastic sign or combining wood and stainless steel for an industrial look. There are many other possible combinations that can work for your brand.     Ready to Try A Stainless Steel Sign?     At Captivating Signs, we can help you bring out the best in stainless steel in your sign design. We create all kinds of custom interior signs that help your brand shine with strength. Reach out to us today.     AESTHETIC     Acrylic signs are eye-catching yet subtle and tasteful. They are ideal for companies who are looking to add signage to their office which is both practical and aesthetically pleasing. It’s even possible to “float” the letters of the sign to create an attractive 3D effect.     DURABILITY     One practical reason why many people use acrylic signs is that they are very durable and need little maintenance. They can withstand any weather condition including snow, rain, hail high winds and temperatures.     CUSTOMIZABLE     Although an acrylic sign includes a relatively simple and straightforward design, there is still room for a high level of customization. The plate itself can be frosted, clear or even a solid colour. The design can include a simple name in a wide range of colours, or even logo designs.     BRANDING     Acrylic signs offer an excellent opportunity to improve the branding and brand visibility of your company. Acrylic signs allow for simplicity, which means you are free to use whichever typography or imagery necessary to communicate your brand.           PROFESSIONAL     We offer a variety of different signage solutions, but when it comes to combining visibility and professionalism, acrylic signs are the best solution and reflect the class of your company. Most signage is appropriate for B2C, but acrylic signage is primarily for B2B companies.     ACRYLIC SIGNS AT WARWICK SIGNS     At Warwick Signs we offer competitively-priced and professional acrylic signs.     What is Resin Stone?     Resin stones are made by taking shards of stone, binding them with a strong adhesive and molding them in with a special resin. The resulting mixture is then capped with acrylic or other coatings to ensure that the surface and core is protected and scratch resistant. And, because it is made from resin, the material is much lighter than normal stone without losing it’s durability.     What common items are made from Resin Stone?     Stone resin can be formed to make a number of common home items such as tile for flooring, bathtubs, sinks, showers, garden stones and even some jewelry as well.     What are the benefits of Resin Stone?     In addition to being lightweight and affordable, there is a reason this material has a bit of an edge when compared to other commonplace bathtub materials such as acrylic, fiberglass, porcelain and cast iron. The material will not warp overtime unlike fiberglass and acrylic, nor will it break, shatter or chip due to heavy impacts from accidental drops or falls like porcelain will and, as stated before, the material is as durable as cast iron with being four times lighter than it. It is non-porous, meaning it will not absorb water unlike fiberglass and acrylic, which means the structural integrity of it will never change, it also has excellent heat retention on par with higher end materials like enameled steel and copper. And lastly, stone resin is very eco-friendly, made from recycled materials with an entirely green production model. With the added benefit of being a durable material, it will also not create waste as stone resin bathtubs will last several lifetimes.     How to clean and maintain Resin Stone     Surprisingly, stone resin is also quite easy to maintain and clean, as most stains or dirt can be washed away with water and can also be polished easily as well. Simply use a soap based solution or any non-abrasive cleaners to remove any buildup or stains down the line. Avoid using acidic based cleaners or abrasive cleaners as it will damage and remove the finish over time.     How long does Resin Stone last with good maintenance?     With good care and proper maintenance, stone resin can last a lifetime easily.

Publish Date: 2021/08/25

Electric Mining Equipment is Poised to Power the Industry

Description:     Electric Mining Equipment is Poised to Power the Industry     Many mining OEMs are taking advantage of the opportunities created by this trend. For instance, offers a range of BEV, zero-emission mining machine, including the Scooptram? ST7, the Electric Boomer M2C and smaller truck models.      Meanwhile, offers its Z50 mining truck, powered by lithium-ion batteries. It boasts three times more power than a diesel, and the capability to haul 50 tons of material. It also features regenerative braking and an automated battery swap system that can “refuel” the vehicle in about 10 minutes.     Stone machine buying guide     Buying guide for marble polishing machine     Are you in need of a stone polish machine? There are several machines on the market, making it challenging to select one that is ideal for your needs. However, with the help of a buying guide for marble polishing machine, it will be easier to find an ideal stone polishing machine.     In this article, we will provide you with a buying guide for marble polishing machine. Read on below to find out more.     1. National Geographic Professional Rock Tumbler.     This machine turns simple rocks into sparkling ones. It is a rock tumbler brought by National Geographic. This product can last long because it is made of high-quality material. It weighs 21 lbs. and has a rubber barrel whose function is to complete the polishing job without any leakages and noise. It is easy to control the time and the speed at which you need to use this machine. This machine is popular among rock polishers’ buyers because it has a shut-off timer and speed control function.     This machine comes with a complete kit containing jewel fastenings, a tumbler, an instruction manual, and several polishing grits. It comes with a 2-year warranty and a standard size of 6.0 by 9.2 by 2.2 inches.      2. Tru-square metal products single barrel rock polishers      With this machine, you will be able to turn every piece from its condition to a new stunning and smooth object. Tru- squire metal is known to work best with complex things. It comes with a complete kit that has all the essential tools necessary for completing the polishing task fully. The machine has a rubber barrel tumbler, polishing grit, several gemstones, and an instruction book. The barrel polishes silently and the machine has a leak-proof lid.     It is an excellent choice to use in the house, school, or even in your workplace. It is a 4.8 by 12.5 by 15.8 inch machine. It has a programmable timer and comes with a 2-year warranty. This machine can be used in making handmade gifts for friends and family.     3. Discover with dr. cool hobby rock tumbler      It is a product worth buying as it has high-quality parts made of heavy-duty steel. It efficiently performs a polishing task. It is attached to a rubber barrel that significantly reduces noise.     This product is very convenient for polishing workpieces. It has a timer that complements its automatic shut-down feature. It has a size of 10.8 by eight by 9.5 inches and comes with a 2-year warranty.     4.  ABN rolling rock tumbler kit      It is a well-made rock and metal polisher. Its size is 15.6 by 8.3 by 8.3 inches. It comes with a complete set for making smooth rocks and objects. It is very safe to use for both adults and kids. It has a simple operation process, and it is fitted with thick rubber barrels that provide a quiet operation when working with the machine.     It comes with an instruction book that guides you on any polishing task you may want to undertake. Five more belts are included in the package. This machine has the best quality, and it can serve for many years. Its size is 15.6 by 8.3 by 8.3 inches.      5. Legal rotary rock tumbler      This machine has the best reputation in terms of quality and durability. Its package consists of a powerful tumbler, V belts and, a walnut shell. It comes with an instruction book that contains explicit instructions and directives on how to handle the machine. It is suitable to use on any stone polishing task you subject it to. It uses the power of 120V.     It works efficiently for long hours and offers the user a chance to complete his/her task without interruptions. Its size is 14.9 by 6.2 by 4.8 inches. This machine works great for rocks and metals. This machine has a lifetime warranty. It is easy to use and therefore friendly to beginners.     6. HWV316POLSET polishing kit (rock polishers)     This machine makes the tough job of polishing metals, jewelry, and stones very easy. This machine is a powerful rock polisher. It is a product of Asia Pacific Construction. It is made to polish granite, concretes, and marbles.     It comes with a package that contains very essential polishing items. It has a rubber backer of 4 inches, comes with a 1 -year warranty, and is very durable.     7. Lortone 45C rotary rock tumbler kit     This machine comes with many great features. Its package comes with assorted rough stones, polishing compounds, abrasive, and a manual book.     This machine turns rough rocks into gorgeous smooth stones. It has a capacity of 4lbs. and is built with high–quality steel making it very durable. It has a size of 35 by 4 by 2.5 inches           8. Heavy-duty rotary tumbler with 15lb capacity (rock polishers)     This stone polisher is among the best rock tumblers for polishing metal and brass. It handles heavy tasks without difficulties since it is 15lbs. It is attached with a removable rubber liner, which makes this product very desirable. It is used for heavy-duty tasks because it has a strong motor. This machine can be used in schools, homes, and labs.     It has a cooling fan that always keeps the motor cool. This machine has a total size of 13.4 by 12.9 by 11.5 inches and comes with a 5-year warranty.       Indeed, there are numerous brands of stone processing machine in the market. They vary in terms of size, features, and work capacity. Even though selecting an ideal stone polisher may be challenging, with the correct information, it becomes very easy.       Where i can buy Stone polishing machine?     As a machine manufacturer, we have the best stone polishing machines from different brands.      Energy consumption of block-cutting machines represents a major cost item in the processing of travertines and other natural stones. Therefore, determining the optimum sawing conditions for a particular stone is of major importance in the natural stone-processing industry. An experimental study was carried out utilizing a fully instrumented block-cutter to investigate the sawing performances of five different types of travertine blocks during cutting with a circular diamond saw. The sawing tests were performed in the down-cutting mode. Performance measurements were determined by measuring the cutting speed and energy consumption. Then, specific energy was determined. The one main cutting parameter, cutting speed, was varied in the investigation of optimum cutting performance. Furthermore, some physico-mechanical properties of the travertine blocks were determined in the laboratory. As a result, it is found that the energy consumption (specific energy) of block cutting machine is highly affected by cutting speed. It is determined that specific energy value usually decreases when cutting speed increases. When the cutting speed is higher than the determined value, the diamond saw can become stuck in the travertine block; this situation can be a problem for the block-cutting machine. As a result, the optimum cutting speed obtained for the travertine mines examined is approximately 1.5–2.0 m/min.     The function of the mining machine edit voice     (Bitcoin) is a kind of network virtualization produced by open source P2P software. It does not rely on the issuance of a specific currency institution, and is generated through a large number of calculations with a specific algorithm. The economic use of the entire P2P network P2P decentralized characteristics and algorithms can ensure that artificially unable to make money through mass manufacturing.     Many companies develop a specific machine with any special crystal element.     Method of editing voice on another machine     The simple thing to do is that in the early client, there was production of miners, but the reason for the cancellation of the computer, as you use your own mass production, you may have more and more people, and you must dig up to 50%. A currency, so miners are generally organized into miners’ guilds, and everyone digs together.     To make it simpler, you can download a dedicated calculation tool, then register various cooperative websites, fill in the calculated name and password into the program, and then click to operate the registered user to start.     What Is Bitcoin Mining?     Bitcoin mining is the process by which new bitcoins are entered into circulation, but it is also a critical component of the maintenance and development of the blockchain ledger. It is performed using very sophisticated computers that solve extremely complex computational math problems.     Cryptocurrency mining is painstaking, costly, and only sporadically rewarding. Nonetheless, mining has a magnetic appeal for many investors interested in cryptocurrency because of the fact that miners are rewarded for their work with crypto tokens. This may be because entrepreneurial types see mining as pennies from heaven, like California gold prospectors in 1849. And if you are technologically inclined, why not do it?     However, before you invest the time and equipment, read this explainer to see whether mining is really for you. We will focus primarily on Bitcoin (throughout, we'll use "Bitcoin" when referring to the network or the cryptocurrency as a concept, and "bitcoin" when we're referring to a quantity of individual tokens).     A New Gold Rush     The primary draw for many mining is the prospect of being rewarded with Bitcoin. That said, you certainly don't have to be a miner to own cryptocurrency tokens. You can also buy cryptocurrencies using fiat currency; you can trade it on an exchange like Bitstamp using another crypto (as an example, using Ethereum or NEO to buy Bitcoin); you even can earn it by shopping, publishing blog posts on platforms that pay users in cryptocurrency, or even set up interest- earning crypto accounts.     An example of a crypto blog platform is Steemit, which is kind of like Medium except that users can reward bloggers by paying them in a proprietary cryptocurrency called STEEM. STEEM can then be traded elsewhere for Bitcoin.     The Bitcoin reward that miners receive is an incentive that motivates people to assist in the primary purpose of mining: to legitimize and monitor Bitcoin transactions, ensuring their validity. Because these responsibilities are spread among many users all over the world, Bitcoin is a "decentralized" cryptocurrency, or one that does not rely on any central authority like a central bank or government to oversee its regulation.     How to Mine Bitcoins     Miners are getting paid for their work as auditors. They are doing the work of verifying the legitimacy of Bitcoin transactions. This convention is meant to keep Bitcoin users honest and was conceived by Bitcoin's founder, Satoshi Nakamoto. By verifying transactions, miners are helping to prevent the "double- spending problem."      Double spending is a scenario in which a Bitcoin owner illicitly spends the same bitcoin twice. With physical currency, this isn't an issue: once you hand someone a $20 bill to buy a bottle of vodka, you no longer have it, so there's no danger you could use that same $20 bill to buy lotto tickets next door. While there is the possibility of counterfeit cash being made, it is not exactly the same as literally spending the same dollar twice. With digital currency, however, as the Investopedia dictionary explains, "there is a risk that the holder could make a copy of the digital token and send it to a merchant or another party while retaining the original."     Let's say you had one legitimate $20 bill and one counterfeit of that same $20. If you were to try to spend both the real bill and the fake one, someone that took the trouble of looking at both of the bills' serial numbers would see that they were the same number, and thus one of them had to be false. What a Bitcoin miner does is analogous to that—they check transactions to make sure that users have not illegitimately tried to spend the same bitcoin twice. This isn't a perfect analogy—we'll explain in more detail below.     Once miners have verified 1 MB (megabyte) worth of Bitcoin transactions, known as a "block," those miners are eligible to be rewarded with a quantity of bitcoins (more about the bitcoin reward below as well). The 1 MB limit was set by Satoshi Nakamoto, and is a matter of controversy, as some miners believe the block size should be increased to accommodate more data, which would effectively mean that the bitcoin network could process and verify transactions more quickly.     Note that verifying 1 MB worth of transactions makes a coin miner eligible to earn bitcoin—not everyone who verifies transactions will get paid out.     1MB of transactions can theoretically be as small as one transaction (though this is not at all common) or several thousand. It depends on how much data the transactions take up.        

Publish Date: 2021/08/25

Everything You Wanted To Know About Titanium

Description:     Everything You Wanted To Know About Titanium     If steel and titanium are both equal in strength, then aluminum is half the strength. When you get into the 7000 series of aluminum they get to about two thirds the strength of titanium. The problem is that the ductility of aluminum is less than steel. This is what comes into play when designing parts, especially the axles and some bolts, like cylinder head bolts, the stretchiness becomes an issue with titanium. And the technical term for that is modulus of elasticity. That's why a when looking at a titanium spring, it has less coils in it. With the modulus number of titanium being half of steel it's going to flex twice as much for the same amount of load.      So let's give an example. Let's say it's a steel bolt and you give it 1,000 pounds of force on the bolt, the bolt is going to stretch a certain amount. A titanium bolt with that same 1000 pounds of force is going to stretch twice as much. Because of stretching it will still carry the load as long as you are within the elastic limit. That's why people say they have a problem with the bolt stretching, but they both stretch until they come up to the clamp load that holds the assembly together. In motorcycle terms we see this in the triple clamps. There have only been a few riders we know that have the ability to tell the difference between steel bolts and titanium bolts. That same rider can tell the difference between 15 foot-pounds and 18 foot-pounds of torque. There are only a few riders that are that sensitive to tell the tiny differences in the triple clamps. Across the board right now we pretty much have everybody running titanium triple clamp bolts and titanium front axle pinch bolts.     The precursor to it, everyone talks about the factory teams having the advantages. Back in the ‘60s and ‘70s, with the titanium coming out of the aerospace industry, a lot of the factory teams had access and the budget to be able to build titanium fasteners. Back in the ‘70s, going into the early eighties, the machining of titanium was quite tricky. The CNC machines and the quality of the cutting tools to cut the material were still relatively expensive and hard to handle. If you talk to anyone that has been around motocross for a long time like Roger DeCoster, back in the ‘70s he had bikes totally decked out with titanium fasteners with the factory programs. But for privateers it was really hard to get their hands on it. Then CNC machines were more available, but this is where a lot of the bad wrap started with titanium axles and fasteners. CNC machines were coming along and people could take titanium bar and machine it and make a fastener by just purely machining it out of bar stock. The problem with that is if you want to make an aircraft quality fastener, it needs to be hot forged, meaning it needs a forged head to get the proper grain structure, followed by the proper heat treating and then you need to have a rolled thread.      When you put a piece of bar stock into a CNC machine and machine it, you build up stress risers in the surface and they look like little Grand Canyon fishers on the microscopic level and then they would get fatigue cracks under the head or they get fatigue cracks in the threads and the bolts would break. Titanium seems to be more sensitive to the finish of the surface. This is where people were having random breakages with titanium and they were calling it brittle or saying it didn't have the strength of steel. But this was a processing problem, not a problem with the actual material.     When it comes time for assembly, we recommend to use anti-seize of some type. It can be an aluminum or copper anti-seize, but better than that, we like to use moly assembly paste. So the same moly paste that you'd put on your cam lobes. Look for one with a 40 percent moly content. The molybdenum gets ground into the surface and prevents any galling between the titanium and aluminum, or ti on titanium nut.  With axles, a thin layer of grease is recommended so the bearing isn't beating on the dry axle.  Then, when you're doing your normal maintenance pull them out and drop them in 409 or Simple Green to soak them overnight or if you have an ultrasonic cleaner they'll come out super bright and clean again. In some places you need to use Loctite like on rear sprockets, you can use blue Loctite on it and it actually also keeps the bolts from galling.      Titanium screw(Most of titanium alloy screws are titanium Gr.5, Ti-6al4v) have high specific strength, tensile strength up to 100-140kgf/mm2, and density is only 60% of steel.     The medium temperature strength is good, the working temperature is several hundred degrees higher than aluminum alloy. Titanium alloy screws can maintain the required strength at moderate temperature, can work for a long time at 450 ~ 500 ℃.     Good corrosion resistance, titanium alloy screws will form a uniform and dense oxide film on the surface of the atmosphere. It has the ability to resist a variety of media erosion. It has good corrosion resistance in oxidizing and neutral media and excellent corrosion resistance in seawater, wet chlorine and chloride solutions. However, in a reducing medium such as hydrochloric acid, the corrosion resistance of titanium is poor.     Titanium alloy screw has good low-temperature performance, and titanium alloy with extremely low gap element can maintain a certain plasticity at -253 ℃.     Titanium alloy screws has low elastic modulus, low thermal conductivity, no ferromagnetism, high hardness, poor stamping property and good thermoplasticity.     Using plus cathodic polarization to reduce or prevent metal corrosion is called cathodic protection that could be achieved by two methods: impressed current protection and sacrificial anode protection.Impressed current protection makes the whole surface of the protected metal structure work as cathode, source negative pole will be connected to the metal while source positive pole connected to auxiliary anode to protection a metal equipment. Cathodic polarization occurs when current of auxiliary anode goes through the electrolyte solution and concentrates on the metal cathode, the current goes back to the source and the total potential of the metal will be reduced. If the protective current is big enough, anode of the metal structure becomes insoluble, meanwhile, the cathodic reduction reaction only occurs on the metal surface, the impressed current could achieve full protection. Anode materials develop and become various under a variety of anode working conditions. MMO titanium anode that using titanium as substrate and high catalytic activity of platinum group metal oxide as the coating with good electrical conductivity, small output resistance and good formability without corrosion applied widely in seawater, fresh water and soil environments. The protected metal connecting metal with smaller negative potential to form anode and the protected metal in the electrolyte solution to form a big source, this is called sacrificial anode protection, current flows through anode, electrolyte solution and then goes to the metal equipment to make metal equipment cathodic polarization protection.     Normally, titanium anode in the soil bed works with current density of 100A/m2, life span of 20 years and consumption rate of 0.1mg/A. With 100A/m2 and more than 20 years’ life span in the shallow soil and deep soil environments and without anodic passivity and dissolution, titanium anode is the most ideal auxiliary anode material.     Grade 2 titanium is considered the workhorse of the titanium family and is suitable for most applications. If greater corrosion resistance is required, welded tube can be produced in grades 7, 12, 16, or 26 according to ASTM B-338. If greater strength is required, grades 3 and 12 tubing are available.     Not only is standard-size grade 2 titanium pipe and tube available from inventory or quick production runs, larger sizes also can be produced by independent fabricators. Many of them also can design and produce complete piping systems, heat exchangers, and pressure vessels. This geographically diverse fabrication base has more than 25 years of engineering and design experience.     Titanium as a fastener material     Titanium is banned in the current Formula One engine regulations from being used for threaded fasteners, despite its attractive attributes for such components. The rules specify that threaded fasteners must be made from alloys based on one of three elements - iron, cobalt or nickel - and this is planned to be carried forward for the new V6 turbo engines we will see in use from 2014 onwards. It should be noted though that there is no similar regulation governing the use of titanium fasteners on the chassis.     Besides titanium's obviously attractive property of low density, its elastic modulus is the other property that makes it a good candidate material for fasteners, both of the internally and externally threaded varieties. The use of nuts with lower modulus than the male fastener is known to reduce the stress concentration effect at the first thread, and improves the distribution of load over the length of the engaged threads. Where high-modulus materials are specified for both internal and external threads, one way to achieve the same effect is to use combinations of male and female parts with very slightly differing thread pitches.     When considering the design of a stud or Gr5 titanium bolt used for cyclically loaded fastener, it is important to consider both the fastener stiffness and the stiffness of the parts being clamped. A simple formula involving these quantities dictates how the service load is shared between the unloading of the joint, and the extra load borne by the fastener. This relationship has been covered in one of the early RET Monitor articles on fasteners and in a past article in Race Engine Technology magazine*.     The smaller the stiffness of the fastener is compared to the stiffness of the joint, the less of the service load that is borne by the fastener. Ideally, what we want from a fastener material is for it to be strong - fatigue strength is the significant strength in a cyclically loaded fastener - and to have low stiffness. Titanium can score well here, and its lightness is a bonus, although that shouldn't come as a surprise. Most metallic materials fall within a pretty narrow range of specific modulus (modulus divided by density) and so any material with a low modulus is likely to have a low density. There are some notable exceptions to this 'rule of thumb', such as beryllium, but most common aluminium, magnesium, titanium and steel alloys we are likely to commonly use have very similar specific modulus values.     There are some technical problems though with the use of titanium as a male fastener. Its tendency to gall at low levels of load when sliding means it needs to be installed with special grease, or needs to have its surface treated to prevent the problem, especially where it is used in conjunction with a titanium nut. However, the problem is far from insurmountable, and racing motorcycles of 20 years ago were festooned with such fasteners throughout the engine and chassis, as are many racecars, motorcycles and boats today. It seems strange that they are now outlawed in bespoke race engines at the highest levels of motorsport, but are affordable to low-budget racers.     Titanium bolts     About titanium bolts     Bicycle titanium bolt come closest to steel in terms of strength but Ti is 47% lighter.     Note, although Ti bolts can be as strong as mild steel bolts,they are no substitute for high tensile steel bolts. Syntace sell some high quality Ti bolts and here is what they say about high-tensile bolt replacement.     Why titanium’s the best option             There are a few materials approved by the Association of Professional Piercers (APP), but implant-grade titanium is the one most piercers recommend for initial piercings.                 Here’s why:                 It’s nickel-free. Nickel is the most common contact allergen in the world, according to the European Centre for Allergy Research Foundation. It’s regularly found in jewelry for piercings. Titanium doesn’t contain any nickel, which makes it safe for people with sensitive skin or a nickel allergy.                 It has a high strength-to-density ratio. In other words, titanium is considerably less dense than stainless steel and other metals, but just as strong (if not more so). This makes it durable and less likely to bend or break.                 It’s lightweight. That low density we just talked about is what makes titanium studs lighter than those made with other metals.                 It can be anodized. Titanium’s dark metallic color is cool as is. But unlike other stainless steel, you can get titanium in other colors. This is done through anodizing, an electrochemical process that changes the surface color while maintaining safety.             The runners-up           As long as you don’t have a known metal allergy or extremely sensitive skin, you have other safe options outside of titanium.                 The following are jewelry materials approved by the APP for fresh piercings.                 Surgical steel                 Surgical steel is a popular choice for piercings because it’s affordable, durable, and safe for most. It does contain some nickel, but thanks to a low rate of transfer, your skin is unlikely to notice.                 Just remember that not all steel jewelry is of the same quality. Only a few specific grades are biocompatible, meaning the jewelry won’t oxidize, tarnish or react with skin.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/25

RF Adapters Gain Bandwidth While Lowering Return Loss

Description:     RF Adapters Gain Bandwidth While Lowering Return Loss     From laboratory test setups to the transmitting equipment connected to base-station antennas, coaxial and waveguide adapters have been guiding RF and microwave signals for a long time. These adapters have increased flexibility by establishing connections between different or dissimilar connectors. At the same time, they have steadily continued to make electrical and mechanical progress in order to meet new performance goals set by modern and emerging applications. RF connectors suppliers have been able to continuously augment adapter performance by using newer materials, improved manufacturing methods and plating techniques, precision assembly processes, and clever impedance transformer designs.     Traditionally, waveguide-to-coaxial adapters have been a right-angle solution for applications requiring transition. In many situations, however, it is desirable to have connectors inline with the waveguide. By employing the latest RF techniques coupled with precision assembly methods, RLC Electronics has developed in-line adapters also popularly known as end-launch adapters. According to RLC's Director of Marketing, Peter Jeffery, the only advantage here is mechanical and there is also a disadvantage: very narrow bandwidth. Further details on this customer-specific solution were unavailable.     Numerous firms have taken more standard approaches (see Table). Space Machine & Engineering Corp., for instance, has readied a standard series of end-launch waveguide-to-coaxial adapters that incorporate its proprietary matching structure into the waveguide. To obtain broader bandwidth, the company has developed double-ridge waveguide-to-coaxial endlaunch adapters covering sizes WRD750 through WRD200 (Fig. 1). The adapters boast a maximum voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 1.5:1. Doubleridge waveguides for end-launch-style adapters also have been developed by AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation, Cobham Defense Electronic Systems, and QuinStar Technology. Both AR and QuinStar also offer these adapters with rectangular waveguides using a variety of coaxial connectors.     Among the additional proponents of end-launch-style waveguideto- coaxial adapters are Advanced Technical Materials, A-INFO, Flann Microwave, Maury Microwave, Microwave Engineering Corp., and Unique Broadband Systems. Aside from achieving a low profile with short length and low loss and VSWR, Microwave Engineering's design permits its end-launch adapters to operate over multi-octave bandwidths at high power levels.     Developers of end-launch adapters also provide right-angle models. RLC, for example, has been making standard waveguide- to-coaxial adapters in a variety of configurations for applications in the 3.3-to-40-GHz range with options for a broadband or band-specific model. Broadband waveguide-to-coaxial adapters maintain superior electrical specifications over the entire bandwidth. In contrast, band-specific models offer enhanced electrical performance for a specified bandwidth around the center frequency.     The firm's WAD series comprises 50-Ω coaxial-connector types including N, SMA, and K male or female. The adapters' average power-handling capability is 300 W for N, 60 W for SMA, and 25 W for K-type connectors with the waveguide flange as standard. Although insertion loss ranges to just 0.05 dB between 3.3 and 8.2 GHz, it begins to climb as the frequency goes higher. Hence, insertion loss rises to 0.1 dB between 10 and 18 GHz and climbs to 0.15 dB as frequency scales beyond 18 GHz. Likewise, VSWR is 1.2:1 between 3.3 and 8.2 GHz, but deteriorates to 1.35:1 with frequency ascending to 18 GHz and beyond.     The manufacturer also has introduced right-angle solder-free adapters that can handle frequencies to 11 GHz from -65 to 165C. The 50-Ω UG-27 C/U adapters are rated for operating voltages to 1000 V RMS with a maximum dielectric withstanding voltage of 2000 V RMS at 60 Hz at sea level. They flaunt a VSWR of 1.15:1 from DC to 6 GHz and 1.35:1 from 6 to 11 GHz, respectively. Featuring silver and gold center contact plating, the adapters come with albaloy, nickel, and silver body plating.     For their relatively small size and good electrical performance, SMA connectors are commonly found in wireless systems, military/aerospace equipment, test and measurement setups, and Global Positioning System (GPS) antennas. Because these connectors use threaded coupling, they require operator time especially in test environments. It takes time to make the threaded connection and then torque the coupling prior to test. To save time and simplify the testing process, Molex has developed two versions of SMA jack to SMA slide on the plug adapter. While a floating-panel- mount version targets test fixtures (73251-2130), the knurled-body version is designed for use on the end of test cables for production testing (73251-2380).     This adapter mates with standard SMA as per MIL-STD-348A. To create constant ground, it uses a berylliumcopper (BeCu) spring on the SMA push-on side. According to the company, this 50-Ω adapter boasts a maximum VSWR of 1.25:1 to 18 GHz. Its body is stainless-steel passivated while the center contact is gold plated.     To ease interconnections in system applications, Response Microwave has launched a new line of coaxial adapters in frequency ranges from DC through 50 GHz with impedances of both 50 and 75 Ω. The 75-Ω BNC , 1.0/2.3, and 1.6/5.6 in- series adapters are specifically tailored for telecommunications and networking infrastructure, explains Peter A. Alfano, the company's Director of Business Development. Alfano points out that the in-series and between-series adapters offer popular interfaces like SMA, SSMA, SMB, 2.4 mm, 2.9 mm, 3.9 mm, SMP, N, 7/16, BNC, TNC, MCX, MMCX, 1.0/2.3, and 1.5/5.6. Plus, there are coupling options like thread-on, push-on, and quick disconnect (Fig. 2). These adapters also come in a variety of configurations, such as in-line, right angle, T, and U-link. They are available in both stainless-steel and brass housings with silver, gold, nickel, or ternary plating options.     With the proliferation of WiFi and broadband infrastructure for telecommunications and high-speed data communications, a tremendous need has arisen for a variety of connectors to test cables in the field. RF Connectors' Vice President of Marketing, Manny Gutsche, points out that the unavailability of any unique interconnection in the field can pose a problem and delay testing. To simplify this task, RF adaptors a division of RF Industrieshas crafted a universal adapter kit labeled RFA-4028-WIFI.     This kit comprises the Unidapt RF cable tester with an assortment of 30 universal adapters, which include male and female MMCX, N, reverse-polarity (RP) TNC, RP SMA, TNC, BNC, and SMA connector interfaces. By screwing any two interface adapters in this kit to a universal center, Gutsche says that scores of different adapters can be made in seconds. All adapters feature machined brass, silver-plated bodies, gold-plated contacts, and Teflon insulation. They also are sold separately. Without the tester, the universal adapter kit is labeled RFA-4024-WIFI (Fig. 3).     Other suppliers offering such universal kits include Bomar Interconnect Products and MegaPhase. To address the needs of technicians and engineers in the broadcast field, Bomar has readied a 42-piece adapter kit, called ADPT4RP, that contains the parts most often needed by technicians in on-site antenna installations. The product consists of two male and two female Type N, BNC, UHF, TNC, TNC reverse-thread (RT), TNC-RP, SMA, and SMA-RP 50-Ω coaxial parts as well as eight universal adapters and two flat wrenches. These parts are fabricated using precision-machined brass with corrosion-resistant gold bodies, Teflon insulators, and gold-plated contacts. For its part, MegaPhase's universal adapter kit includes tools to properly terminate three different-length cable sub-assemblies with various connector combinations.     An F connector is a fitting that connects a coaxial cable to an electronic device or a wall jack.     Traditional coaxial cables were once the standard means of connecting a television to an antenna or cable TV access point. But they are less common now that high-definition and ultra-high-definition televisions make prevalent use of HDMI, fiber optical, and ethernet cables for many of their connections. Still, coaxial cables have their purposes, and your video system may still use them.      A coaxial cable used to bring electronic signals to a television or other electronic device terminates in an F connector. There are several ways these F connectors can be attached to coaxial cable. Professional installers use a coaxial cable stripper, which strips all three layers of the cable at once. Then, they slip on the F connector and secure it with a coaxial cable tool, which presses the connector onto the cable and crimps it at the same time.     Choosing the proper BNC connector to suit the cable for your project usually comes with a price. The price typically needs to be an appropriate assessment of the intending cable. A major issue plaguing most corporate organizations and teams is choosing the right cable. BNC cables remain one of the most used cable types across different industries. This article presents all you need to know about the BNC cable. You will learn about Siamese cables, connectors, benefits, and applications of other types of cables.     There are many definitions of the BNC acronym. Other names include Barrel Nut connector, Bayonet Navy connector, Bayonet Nipple connector, and British Naval Connector. Nevertheless, they are popularly known as the “Bayonet Neill-Concelman.”     Bayonet Neill-Concelman (BNC) is used as a socket and plug for video signals, audio signals, power, and networking systems. These devices are known to offer the best connection to devices. They have a powerful bond with any device of choice.     An IEC connector refers to a type of electronic cable that meet the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. The specification for IEC connectors is IEC-60320. The connectors mount with cables are commonly referred to as female connectors or sockets, whereas the connectors mount with panels are known as male connectors or plugs. IEC-60320 is a standard for male and female connectors used in cables and electric devices such as computers, workstations, laptops, printers and so on. Note that the IEC-60320 standard applies to different range and types of electrical devices. There is a range of standardized connectors that differ in regards to current capacities, temperature ratings and number of conductors. The main purpose of these cables is to attach an electronic appliance to its power source.     The RCA connector was invented in the 1940s and was first used to connect an amplifier to a phonograph. They are sometimes referred to as phono connectors due to this original purpose, even though they can be used to carry both audio and video from many different devices. By the 1950s, the RCA connector had largely replaced the tip ring sleeve (TRS) connector in most high fidelity audio systems, and they remained popular even after the introduction of digital audio and video. Most audio-visual equipment comes equipped with RCA connectors, and some speakers do as well.     There are two types of RCA connectors that are used together to make solid electrical connections. Female RCA connectors are typically located on devices. These connectors typically protrude from a device and have one contact on the exterior surface and another in the center. Male RCA connectors are typically found on cable ends and contain an outer sleeve contact in addition to a central pin connection. There are also numerous other configurations, such as extension cables that have one male and one female RCA connector, splitters that can connect a monaural output to a stereo input, and converters that include female RCA connectors and a male TRS connector.     Do you find it difficult to identify what RF connector type you're going to use in an application? If so, don’t worry. In this article, you will learn about the different types of RF connectors and what applications they are commonly used for.      RF connectors are connectors that are designed to work at radio frequencies for signal transmission of products like radios, antennas, coaxial cables, etc. However, these connectors have a variety of types.      The Type N connector is a threaded, weatherproof, medium sized connector for durable applications that can easily handle frequencies up to 11 Ghz. This type of connector follows MIL-STD-348 and widely used in lower frequency microwave systems where ruggedness and low cost are needed.      DIN Connectors were originally brought into line in the 1970s. It is an electrical connector, and its architecture has multiple pins that are under a protective circular sheath. Normally, a full-sized DIN Connector contains three to 14 pins with a diameter of 13.2 millimetres.      The term Din connector doesn’t refer to a specific cable. Instead, it requires all the connectors that meet the Din standard.     The circular connector is another name for Din Connector in computer electronics. It’s also used for a digital interface such as musical instrument digital interfaces MIDI.     There are mainly two types of DIN connector. We will discuss them briefly one by one.     ? Circular connector     ? Loudspeaker connector      CIRCULAR CONNECTOR     Circular connectors consist of a family of male plugs. They have the same feature of 13.2 diameter metal shield with a notch that limits the orientation in which the plug and socket can connect.     There are seven common patterns, which can be any number from three to eight pins. When some high range equipment uses seven-pin connectors, then the outer two carries digital system data. If the equipment is incompatible, then the outer two pins from plug should unscrew. That is why we fit them into standard five pins 180” sockets without data connections. We are going to produce more new products.

Publish Date: 2021/08/25

Nickel Powders from the Carbonyl Process

Description:     Nickel Powders from the Carbonyl Process     Metal powder is the base materials for the production of metallic component through the conventional powder metallurgy route or the emerging field of additive manufacturing. In any of these process routes, the properties of the finished product depends on the character of the base powder from which it is produced which is equally dependent on the process of production of the base powder. Therefore, there are different methods for producing metal powders with each method offering different particle morphology and purity. These methods include crushing (for brittle material), machining, mechanical pulverization, slotting, electrolysis, atomization of liquid metal using water, nitrogen, argon, or a combination of these, and reduction of metal oxides in hydrogen or using carbon. These metal oxides could be materials such as iron ore or iron oxide generated from pickling plants, in steel strip mills. Other methods include reduction of metal oxide with higher carbon containing, metal powder, chemical decomposition of metal carbonyls, and electrolytic processing of cathodic deposition from molten metal salts; and in some instances, recycling (Sharma, 2011). Each of these methods provides different particle morphology and characteristics. An illustration of typical powder shapes produced from some of these processes is shown in Figures 1 and 2.     New materials that can be tailored for individual applications are in constant demand. As the range of uses for powder metallurgy, hard metals and electronic materials expands, customer requirements are causing materials companies to come up with new products that have the necessary properties. Nickel can bring a number of benefits to these and other industries. It can improve the mechanical and fatigue properties of alloy steels, enhance conductivity and magnetic properties of electronic materials, act as a binder for holding together particulate materials and be used in filtration components in the form of high porosity products. These applications rely on high purity fine nickel powders and other special nickel forms being adapted to meet specific materials needs, for which a versatile production and processing technology is needed. The nickel carbonyl gas process fulfils these needs.     The Nickel Carbonyl Process     Nickel powder can be made by a number of different processes, including atomisation from melts or precipitation from solutions. However, these techniques tend to give relatively large particles and can be difficult to control economically at fine particle sizes. The nickel carbonyl gas process on the other hand tends to produce much finer particles, and with sufficient production know-how plus the latest computerised process controls, the particles produced can be precisely controlled to very accurate shapes and tolerances.     The nickel carbonyl gas process is used as a way of refining impure nickel. Nickel reacts with carbon monoxide to form nickel carbonyl gas (Ni(CO)4), which can be decomposed back to nickel metal at moderate temperatures with the recovery of carbon monoxide. Using thermal shock decomposition, fine or extra fine nickel powders can be made. Refineries in North America and Britain can each process up to 50,000 tonnes per year of nickel in his way, producing a wide range of different products. The use of such large volumes of carbonyl gas in the refineries allows the economic production of a range of nickel powders. New products can also be made by using the gas stream essentially as a coating medium. These new products include nickel coated graphite particulates, nickel coated carbon fibres and the large scale commercial production of high porosity nickel foam. Another benefit is that the process has no real waste products, with used gas is recycled back into the main refinery process.     Nickel Powders for Powder Metallurgy     The nickel powders produced for powder metallurgy applications have been developing step by step over recent decades as customer property specifications have become ever more stringent. Today, there are no ‘standard’ products, only certain families of powders that are based on different morphologies and subsequently fashioned for individual customer applications. Nickel powder production can now be controlled to give the powders the right particle size, density and especially particle shape to enhance the properties of low alloy steel powder metallurgy parts. Additions of nickel to the alloy typically range from 1.75-5%. Nickel-enhanced alloys are increasingly being used for making pressed and sintered parts, particularly in the automotive field.     Powders     Copper powder is produced by many processes including chemical precipitation, electrolytic deposition, oxide reduction, water atomization, gas atomization, and jet milling. Accordingly, Cu powders are commercially available in a wide range of particle shapes and sizes. Electrolytic and chemical powders exhibit poor packing and poor rheology in molding, so they have been largely unsuccessful for MIM (Wada, Kankawa, & Kaneko, 1997). Characteristics of examples of the other types are summarized in Table 20.2. Representative scanning electron micrographs are given in Fig. 20.4. These powders all have similar particle sizes but different morphologies. Typical purities reported by the manufacturers are about 99.85 wt%; however, oxygen contents can range up to 0.76 wt%. Powders are usually shipped containing desiccant and proper powder storage is essential to avoid oxidation between purchase and use.     It is important to try this experiment before doing it as a demonstration, as different samples of aluminium powder can react differently. The induction period for some samples can be quite long. However, this is an impressive and spectacular demonstration, proving that water can be a catalyst. It also shows that aluminium is a very reactive metal, and that its usual unreactive nature is due to the surface oxide layer.     The chemical properties of iodine are very similar to those of bromine and chlorine. However, its reactions are far less vigorous. It can also act as an oxidant for a number of elements such as phosphorus, aluminium, zinc and iron, although increased temperatures are generally required. Oxidation of finely dispersed aluminium with iodine can be initiated using drops of water. The reaction is strongly exothermic, and the excess iodine vaporises, forming a deep violet vapour.         Titanium powder metallurgy can produce high performance and low cost titanium parts. Compared with those by conventional processes, high performance P/M titanium parts have many advantages: excellent mechanical properties, near-net-shape and low cost, being easy to fabricate complex shape parts, full dense material, no inner defect, fine and uniform microstructure, no texture, no segregation, low internal stress, excellent stability of dimension and being easy to fabricate titanium based composite parts.         Titanium alloys parts are ideally suited for advanced aerospace systems because of their unique combination of high specific strength at both room temperature and moderately elevated temperature, in addition to excellent corrosion resistance. Despite these features, use of titanium alloys in engines and airframes is limited by cost. The alloys processing by powder metallurgy eases the obtainment of parts with complex geometry.                 The metallurgy of titanium and titanium-base alloys has been intensely investigated in the last 50 years. Titanium has unique properties like its high strength-to-weight ratio, good resistance to many corrosive environments and can be used over a wide range of temperatures. Typical engineering applications of titanium alloys include the manufacture of cryogenic devices and aerospace components.                 Cosmetic boron nitrides                             What are these famous"white powders" that cosmetic formulators love? Why are they so addictive when you start touching them? How can they help to improve the sensoriality, even the sensuality of a cosmetic product? Which quality to choose for which application?                 Here are some questions that beauty technicians have been asking themselves since the appearance and marketing of cosmetic grade boron nitride powder.                             But first let's talk about the cosmetic quality of boron nitride. In space, the association of BN molecules can take two forms:                 - BN hexagonal = honeycomb slats that can stack one on top of the other.                 These two shapes have different properties, namely the hexagonal shape allows the sliding of the sheets, which gives it a lubricating capacity. While the cubic shape is very rigid, which gives it great hardness.                             The BN cosmetic is hexagonal in shape and comes in the form of white powder with a very lubricating but non- greasy touch. Moreover, it is a material which is very resistant, inert and non-toxic and does not present any danger… neither for the consumer, nor for the formulator which must guarantee the stability of its product. It is for all these reasons that the popularity of BN is rising to the point of replacing more and more good old talc in cosmetic formulations.                 The manufacturers of cosmetic raw materials have understood this well and present to date several ranges of different qualities, thus bringing many cosmetic properties to the BN : - Soft and silky touch - Slippery touch improves the spreading of the product on the skin - Light reflector for a soft focus effect - Opacity, transparency, pearly luster or even glitter depending on the crystal form - Sebum absorber - Mattifying effect - Good compaction agent - High adhesion to the skin for high hold or even non-transfer effect - High chemical stability, unaffected by pH                             These powders are thus used as well for care products as make-up products and in all types of cosmetic formulations; emulsions, anhydrous casts, compact powders, even lotions where they bring several properties quoted.                                         1.Superfine powder                                         Superfine powder is not just a functional material, but also established a solid foundation for the compounding and development of new functional material. The excellent performance of superfine powder exsites in its surface effect and volume effect. the smaller the size of powder, the larger the ratio between Area and volume. Because the BET (surface area) of superfine particle is large, and easy to agglomerate, so we need to do surface treatment/modify to the powder and make it easy dispersing and maximize its performance.                                         2.Surface modification of powder                                         surface modification of powder is to use inorganic substance and organic substance coating the surface of powder either by physical method or chemical process. By coating layer to the powder, the powder is recognized as composite powder that has "core" and "shell layer". and different shell layer could improve the performance of powder such as anti-corrosive, durability, light, thermal and chemical stability etc. by effecting its hydrophily,hydrophobicity,hydrophily, hydrophobicity, catalytic etc.                                         It is mainly applied in the production of powder metallurgy, electronic materials, friction materials, oil bearing, electrical contact materials, conductive materials, medicine, diamond products and machinery parts. In high-tech fields of petroleum catalysts, lubricants, conductive decorative coatings and electromagnetic shielding materials, the nano- copper powder is also widely used.                                         Processing and application technology of superfine copper powder has been a major bottleneck for development of the industry. Silty soft copper, grinding processing difficulties, easily oxidized in moist air. Water atomization high cost, low yield, non-uniform particles, and unstable quality. In addition, many newly developed production technology, part of the complex process, the electrical equipment that require high investment, low production yield, high cost, wide particle distribution, environmental pollution, energy consumption, quality instability and other issues, but also did not become a mainstream technology. Newly developed chemical reduction method can only produce nano-copper powder, and its production process is still in the laboratory research stage, secondary pollutants to deal with difficult due to the high cost of raw materials, low production yield and high cost led to products for sale The high price odd enable customers difficult to accept, in particular, is not ideal in many areas of nanoscale copper powder effect. In addition, unlike the ultra-fine copper powder metal copper, and easily oxidized to copper oxide in the air, only the protection of nitrogen, sealed package, but also affect the large-scale promotion and application of ultra-fine copper powder.  

Publish Date: 2021/08/25

Learn About LED Lighting

Description:     Learn About LED Lighting     What are LEDs and how do they work?     LED stands for light emitting diode. LED lighting products produce light up to 90% more efficiently than incandescent light bulbs. How do they work? An electrical current passes through a microchip, which illuminates the tiny light sources we call LEDs and the result is visible light. To prevent performance issues, the heat LEDs produce is absorbed into a heat sink.     Lifetime of LED Lighting Products     The useful life of LED lighting products is defined differently than that of other light sources, such as incandescent or compact fluorescent lighting (CFL). LEDs typically do not “burn out” or fail. Instead, they experience ‘lumen depreciation’, wherein the brightness of the LED dims slowly over time. Unlike incandescent bulbs, LED “lifetime” is established on a prediction of when the light output decreases by 30 percent.     LEDs are incorporated into bulbs and fixtures for general lighting applications. Small in size, LEDs provide unique design opportunities. Some LED bulb solutions may physically resemble familiar light bulbs and better match the appearance of traditional light bulbs. Some outdoor LED light fixtures may have LEDs built in as a permanent light source. There are also hybrid approaches where a non-traditional “bulb” or replaceable light source format is used and specially designed for a unique fixture. LEDs offer a tremendous opportunity for innovation in lighting form factors and fit a wider breadth of applications than traditional lighting technologies.     LEDs and Heat     LEDs use heat sinks to absorb the heat produced by the LED and dissipate it into the surrounding environment. This keeps LEDs from overheating and burning out. Thermal management is generally the single most important factor in the successful performance of an LED over its lifetime. The higher the temperature at which the LEDs are operated, the more quickly the light will degrade, and the shorter the useful life will be.     LED products use a variety of unique heat sink designs and configurations to manage heat. Today, advancements in materials have allowed manufacturers to design LED bulbs that match the shapes and sizes of traditional incandescent bulbs. Regardless of the heat sink design, all LED products that have earned the ENERGY STAR have been tested to ensure that they properly manage the heat so that the light output is properly maintained through the end of its rated life.     LED lighting differs from incandescent and fluorescent in several ways. When designed well, LED lighting is more efficient, versatile, and lasts longer.     LEDs are “directional” light sources, which means they emit light in a specific direction, unlike incandescent and CFL, which emit light and heat in all directions. That means LEDs are able to use light and energy more efficiently in a multitude of applications. However, it also means that sophisticated engineering is needed to produce an LED bulb that shines light in every direction.     Common LED colors include amber, red, green, and blue. To produce white light, different color LEDs are combined or covered with a phosphor material that converts the color of the light to a familiar “white” light used in homes. Phosphor is a yellowish material that covers some LEDs. Colored LEDs are widely used as signal lights and indicator lights, like the power button on a computer.     In a CFL, an electric current flows between electrodes at each end of a tube containing gases. This reaction produces ultraviolet (UV) light and heat. The UV light is transformed into visible light when it strikes a phosphor coating on the inside of the bulb. Learn more about CFLs.     Incandescent bulbs produce light using electricity to heat a metal filament until it becomes “white” hot or is said to incandesce. As a result, incandescent bulbs release 90% of their energy as heat.     Why should I choose ENERGY STAR certified LED lighting products?     There are more lighting options available today than ever before. Despite that, ENERGY STAR is still the simple choice to save on your utility bills.     LED bulbs that have earned the ENERGY STAR are subject to very specific requirements designed to replicate the experience you are used to with a standard bulb—so they can be used for a wide variety of applications. As the graphic on the right demonstrates, a general purpose LED bulb that does not qualify for the ENERGY STAR may not distribute light everywhere and could prove to be a disappointment if used in a table lamp.     The potential effects of LED street light on health and the environment have been a hot topic of discussion over the last year. As this conversation has evolved, so too have many misperceptions and mischaracterizations of the facts on LEDs. We’ve assembled an array of helpful resources on the topic to help shed some light  and are clarify some of the most common myths on LED streetlights.     LED streetlights are no more harmful to humans and animals than other kinds of streetlights. The concern is not the type of light source, but the amount of emitted light that falls in the short-wavelength, often referred to as the “blue” part of the spectrum. And, unlike other types of streetlights, LED streetlights actually offer the potential to control the amount of short-wavelength light that they emit.On the contrary, short-wavelength light is a fundamental component of the natural world. It’s present in sunlight and has been shown to play an important role in a number of physiological processes, such as affecting circadian rhythm (our 24-hour “biological clock” that controls sleep/wake cycles). The concern is that too much nighttime exposure to short-wavelength light may disrupt sleep patterns and have other undesirable effects.It’s true that early LED lighting products tended to have greater levels of short-wavelength content because the technology was still in its initial stages of development. Tremendous advances since then, however, mean that today’s LEDs can be designed to emit as little, or as much, short-wavelength light as desired, without excessive drop-off in efficiency or other aspects of performance. LEDs also offer much greater control over where the light falls. This means they can often meet the same illumination requirements as conventional streetlights while emitting much less light – thus reducing even further any short-wavelength content.     Floodlighting has become an important part of security for homes and businesses alike. Whether connected to a motion detector or for use to light a garden at night, flood lighting has become an integral part of security in today’s society.     Homeowners and businesses have enough to deal with in these harsh economic times than needing to worry about changing floodlights. That’s why LED Flood Light  offer the client not only an exceptional dispersion of light but also a bounty of advantages, which are only available when you use LED Floodlights.     One of the best advantages of using LED Floodlights is the life expectancy; they last for thirty times longer than standard halogen floodlights. This reveals a variety of advantages: you will have more free space as you would not need to stock up on replacement halogen bulbs. Also the main power involved in swapping out defective halogen bulbs can be time consuming and expensive, especially if running a business which requires the use of floodlighting. Thus purchasing LED Floodlights works to be extremely cost effective for the client. LED Floodlights repay your investment with longer life and an exceptional reduction in electricity costs.     With rising utility prices everyone is looking to save money. Through switching to an LED Floodlights customers will see a fall in their electricity consumption and in turn bills. The LED Floodlight will consume a significantly reduced number of watts compared to a halogen Floodlight, providing the client with an exceptional visual performance as well as low cost electricity bills. LED Floodlights feature economical illumination technology. This technology is also known as Light Emitting Diodes (LED light bulbs); this allows you to have exceptional brightness with a low power consumption.     LED Floodlights have a higher lumen output than standard Floodlights. One LED Floodlight can have the same effect as two or even three standard Floodlights. This is a staggering statistic and it means that with the longer life expectancy and the exceptional brightness less room would be needed for storing your existing halogen equivalent floodlights. It also now means that security for your home and business is now affordable and is most importantly cost effective.     It is important to note when looking to install floodlights for outside use that they are IP65 rated. This means that they have been designed and tested to withstand weather conditions and are safe for outside use. This special rating of IP65 is not to be overlooked as it is essential to the performance of the light when used outside.     Portable floodlights are also available on the market and our ideal for workers at night. By incorporating a battery to floodlights workers can experience high quality LED lighting by only consuming a fraction of the electricity of an ordinary halogen floodlight. This has many advantages such as safety for the workers as a clear bright illumination. Also these would need to be IP65 rated also as even in the most testing weather conditions the clear, crisp light will continue to emit.     This article has shown the huge benefits which LED Floodlights can give compared to their halogen equivalents. So for a more cost effective approach to lighting with better lighting results, make sure you choose LED technology when you purchase your next Floodlights.         In the world of lighting, LED high bay light  is a fixture that you would find in a warehouse, a factory, a gymnasium, or any large open area with relatively high ceilings. Many existing high bay lighting and low bay lighting applications utilize high intensity discharge (HID) lamps such as metal halide or high pressure sodium lamps.     Despite their widespread use, HID lamps utilize antiquated technology that costs building managers both directly and indirectly. Specifically, using HID lamps will result in: higher than necessary energy costs, frequent maintenance costs, and poor lighting performance. These issues can all be addressed by converting your existing lighting to LED.     Energy Savings     Energy savings is a primary driver behind why you should evaluate LED lighting for your building or facility. Common wattages for LED high bay fixtures can range from 95 watts to 495 watts. If we compare this wattage to a typical HID high bay fixture that same range is 175 watts to 1000 watts.     Consequently, by switching to LED lighting you are immediately reducing your energy consumption by 40%-60%. To put this in dollars, you would be saving $300 per fixture per year in electricity costs if you made the switch to LED lighting. Depending on the size of your facility this can really affect the operational balance sheet.     Maintenance Cost Reduction     By converting to LEDs you will also see a dramatic reduction in the maintenance of your high bay light fixtures. This is due to the way LEDs generate light, and the way they progress through their functional life. Instead of ceasing to function properly once a fuel source is significantly reduced, LED generated light output degrades very slowly over time. As a result, the functional life of an LED product can be significantly longer than that of a HID Lamp, therefore drastically reducing the maintenance load required.     For example, by converting conventional 400w HID high bay lighting to LED, a typical building with industrial light fixtures can save up to $5,341 over the course of three years in maintenance costs alone.     The outdoor lighting industry, as with so many other application-oriented industries, assumes that the power source is infinite and always available. This is a tribute to the reliability of the electric grid - at least in developed-world nations. It has certainly made life simpler for the lamp/lighting designers who, for the most part, are able to divorce the lamp characteristics from the energy source. The developed world is starting to learn that the power source is far from infinite.     Some companies are not waiting to see the bottom of the barrel, and are exploring alternatives that range from replacement power sources to energy demand reduction. A number of companies are developing technologies that achieve both: SolarOne Solutions' work in solar-powered solid-state lighting under the SOLED? brand name is an example of this.     Solar-powered lighting     Solar electric lighting systems do in fact connect to a truly "infinite" power source - the sun. However, as we all know, this source is intermittent. In the case of solar outdoor lighting, the power source is inversely related to the load (the lights turn on when the sun goes down). This relationship leads to an important conclusion; the system must rely on energy storage (e.g. batteries), unless it remains connected to grid.     Now in order for a solar lighting system to perform reliably, the solar panel and battery must be sized for the period of longest nights, shortest days and cloudiest weather, all of which occur at the same time each year (see figure 2). Historically, the solar industry has addressed this worst-case scenario by seeking out the most efficient lumen per watt DC lamps and over-sizing the system for the rest of the year. That translated to DC fluorescent bulbs, bigger solar panels, more batteries, higher costs and less-than-appealing appearance.     This approach confined the market for solar LED light to areas closer to the equator with highest average levels of solar irradiation and temperatures that did not affect the performance and lifetime of the DC fluorescent bulbs. It also left the markets in the higher latitudes, typically with higher per capita wealth levels and greater lighting needs rather under-served.

Publish Date: 2021/08/25

Laser and Light Treatment of Acquired and Congenital Vascular Lesions

Description:     Laser and Light Treatment of Acquired and Congenital Vascular Lesions     IPL treatment of PWS     IPL devices are broadband filtered xenon flashlamps that work based on the principles of selective photothermolysis. The emission spectrum of 515–1200 nm is adjusted with the use of a series of cut- off filters, and the pulse duration ranges from approximately 0.5 to 100 msec, depending on the technology. The first commercial system, Photoderm VL (Lumenis, Yokneam, Israel) became available in 1994, and has been used to treat vascular anamolies. Another, IPL Technology (Danish Dermatologic Development Hoersholm, Denmark) with a dual mode light filtering has also been used to treat PWS. Many other IPL system have recently been developed, and the appropriate parameters for congenital vascular lesions are being developed. The IPL has been used successfully to treat PWS (Fig. 39.7),78–80 but pulsed dye laser remains the treatment of choice.     IPL technology has also been used to treat pulsed dye laser-resistant PWS. In the study by Bjerring and associates seven of 15 patients achieved over 50% lesional lightening after four IPL treatments. Most of these patients had lesions involving the V2 dermatome (medial cheek and nose), which are relatively more difficult to lighten. Six of seven of these patients showed over 75% clearance of their PWS. A 550–950-nm filter was used with 8–30-msec pulse durations and fluences of 13–22 J/cm2 to achieve tissue purpura. The 530–750-nm filter can also be used with double 2.5-msec pulses, with a 10-msec delay and fluence of 8–10 J/cm2. Epidermal cooling was not required. Treatment resulted in immediate erythema and edema, and occasional crusting. Hypopigmentation was observed in three patients, hyperpigmentation in one patient, and epidermal atrophy in one patient.     The basics of body fat     Let’s start with the basics. Not all fat is created equal. We have two distinct types of fat in our bodies: subcutaneous fat (the kind that may roll over the waistband of your pants) and visceral fat (the stuff that lines your organs and is associated with diabetes and heart disease).     From here on out, when we refer to fat, we are talking about subcutaneous fat, as this is the type of fat that cryolipolysis targets. A recent study showed that the body’s ability to remove subcutaneous fat decreases with age, which means we are fighting an uphill battle with each birthday we celebrate.     From popsicles to freezing fat     Cryolipolysis machine — which literally translates into cold (cryo) fat (lipo) destruction (lysis) — was invented, in part, by observing what can happen when kids eat popsicles. No kidding here. The cofounders of this process were intrigued by something called “cold-induced fat necrosis” that was reported to occur after young children ate popsicles that were inadvertently left resting on the cheek for several minutes. Skin samples taken from pediatric patients like these showed inflammation in the fat, but normal overlying skin. Thus, it appeared that fat may be more sensitive to cold injury that other tissue types.                   HOW DOES IT WORK?               Coolplas Fat Freeze Machine uses rounded paddles in one of four sizes to suction your skin and fat “like a vacuum,” says Roostaeian. While you sit in a reclined chair for up to two hours, cooling panels set to work crystallizing your fat cells. “It’s a mild discomfort that people seem to tolerate pretty well," he says. " suction and cooling sensations that eventually go numb.” In fact, the procedural setting is so relaxed that patients can bring laptops to do work, enjoy a movie, or simply nap while the machine goes to work.                             WHO IS IT FOR?                             Above all, emphasizes Roostaeian, CoolSculpting is “for someone who is looking for mild improvements,” explaining that it’s not designed for one-stop-shop major fat removal like liposuction. When clients come to Astarita for a consultation, she considers “their age, skin quality—will it rebound? Will it look good after volume is removed?—and how thick or pinchable their tissue is,” before approving them for treatment, because the suction panels can only treat the tissue it can access. “If someone has thick, firm tissue,” explains Astarita, “I won’t be able to give them a wow result.             WHAT ARE THE RESULTS?                             “It often takes a few treatments to get to your optimum results,” says Roostaeian, who admits that a single treatment will yield very minimal change, sometimes imperceptible to clients. “One of the downsides of is there’s a range for any one person. I’ve seen people look at before and after pictures and not be able to see the results. ” All hope is not lost, however, because both experts agree that the more treatments you have, the more results you will see. What will happen eventually is an up to 25 percent fat reduction in a treatment area. “At best you get mild fat reduction—a slightly improved waistline, less bulging of any particular area that’s concerning. I would emphasize the word mild.”                             WILL IT MAKE YOU LOSE WEIGHT? "None of these devices shed pounds,” says Astarita, reminding potential patients that muscle weighs more than fat. When you’re shedding 25 percent of fat in a handful of tissue, it won’t add up to much on the scale, but, she counters, “When what’s spilling over the top of your pants or your bra, it counts.” Her clients come to her in search of better proportions at their current weight, and may leave having dropped “one or two sizes in clothing.”     Although the mechanism of cryolipolysis is not completely understood, it is believed that vacuum suction with regulated cooling, impedes blood flow and induces crystallisation of the targeted adipose tissue with no permanent effect on the overlying dermis and epidermis. This cold induced ischaemia may promote cellular injury in adipose tissue via cellular oedema and mitochondrial free radical release. Another theory is that the initial insult of crystallisation and cold ischaemic injury is further perpetuated by ischaemia reperfusion injury, causing generation of reactive oxygen species, elevation of cytosolic calcium levels, and activation of apoptotic pathways.     Whichever the mechanism of injury, adipocytes undergo apoptosis, followed by a pronounced inflammatory response, resulting in their eventual removal from the treatment site within the following weeks. The inflammatory process sees an influx of inflammatory cells at 14 days post treatment, as adipocytes become surrounded by histiocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and other mononuclear cells. At 14-30 days after treatment, macrophages and other phagocytes envelope and digest the lipid cells as part of the body’s natural response to injury. Initial concern was that cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and high density lipoproteins (HDLs), bilirubin and glucose levels were affected, however these have been shown to all stay within normal limits following the procedure.     Four weeks later, the inflammation lessens and the adipocyte volume decreases. Two to three months after treatment, the interlobular septa are distinctly thickened and the inflammatory process further subsides. Fat volume in the targeted area is apparently decreased and the septa account for the majority of the tissue volume.     Patients and treatment areas     Although all studies show reduction in every area examined, it is still unknown what areas are most responsive to cryolipolysis. Various factors may play a role in the degree of fat reduction observed after cryolipolysis. The vascularity, local cytoarchitecture, and metabolic activity of the specific fat depots in questions may play a role.     There is lack of substantial research to identify the ideal patient or even the ideal area to be treated. Given a modest (yet significant improvement of up to 25% reduction in subcutaneous fat), it is thought that the best candidates are those within their ideal weight range and those who engage in regular exercise, eat a healthy diet, have noticeable fat bulges on the trunk, are realistic in their expectations, and are willing to maintain the results of cryolipolysis with a healthy, active lifestyle.     New design Cryolipolysis is safe for all skin types, with no reported pigmentary changes, and is safe for repeated application. Ferraro et al. suggest that patients who require only small or moderate amounts of adipose tissue and cellulite removal would benefit most from cryolipolysis treatment. Contraindications include cold-induced conditions such as cryoglobunaemia, cold urticaria, and paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria. Cryolipolysis should not be performed in treatment areas with severe varicose veins, dermatitis, or other cutaneous lesions.     HIFU Decide Guide: Which Device is for you?     High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound also known as HIFU machine  is a non-surgical, non-invasive treatment procedure that tightens and lifts the skin using ultrasound energy. It is taken to be a safe and effective procedure for tightening the facial skin.     HIFU treatment procedure has loads of advantages over the traditional means of facial improvement: painless, zero incisions, scarring, and recovery time. In addition, it is far less expensive too.     Granted, HIFU is a popular means of looking better. Little wonder that there are tons of clinics and spas that offer services they claim can make you look better. However, that's not enough reason for you to jump on the bandwagon of folks searching for ways to look better     Why Choosing The Right HIFU Device is Important?     Be sure to get a professional assessment before you start your HIFU treatment. This is because a professional and objective assessment from a specialist will help you discover the best form of treatment using the right multifunctional HIFU that is suitable for you.     Ultrasound technology is completely safe and has been used in medicine for decades. It works by contracting and shortening muscle fibers, thus causing the lifting and tightening effect that makes the skin look better.     Lifting, tightening, and fats melting are natural processes that result in a slimmer face, reduced jowl line & facial tightening. Confused about how to go about the HIFU facelift treatment in Singapore?     You will be able to decide on the best HIFU device to use when you finally decide to undertake the treatment. Let’s look at some of the most common HIFU devices in Singapore.     What is the working principle for HIFU vaginal machine?     The vaginal HIFU machine uses an noninvasive ultrasonic focusing technique to focus on the mucous membrane fibrous layer and muscle layer directly. Using ultrasonic waves as the energy source and taking advantage of its penetration and focus, the system will send out ultrasonic energy focusing in the the lamina and muscle fiber layer in a predetermined depth. A higher intensity of ultrasonic region, called focus region, is formed. In 0.1 second, the temperature of the region can reach to above 65 ℃ , so the collagen is reorganized and the normal tissue outside the focal region is undamaged. Therefore, the desired depth layer can obtain the ideal effect of collagen concentration, reorganization and regeneration. Ultimately, the mysterious effect of vagina tightening is achieved.     What is the functions for each cartridges?     1. Vagina tightening head     4.5mm heads produce the energy directly to the SMAS , make it thermal coagulation , make the SMAS tighten and lifting, improved the muscle structure from deep to shallow, make better to help the muscle layer restore elasticity and  tighten.     3.0mm head the ultrasound penetrates to the skin under the depth of 3.0mm, aim at  activating the dermal layer’s collagen, effectively enhance the effect of the consolidation of the outline, but also shrink large pores and reduce the appearance’s wrinkles.     Knowing that you are interested in 3D Hifu machine, we have listed articles on similar topics on the website for your convenience. As a professional manufacturer, we hope that this news can help you. If you are interested in learning more about the product, please feel free to contact us.3D HIFU is ultrasound energy distance of width, length and depth, which more Comprehensive, three-dimensional. Directly delivers heat energy to skin and subcutaneous tissue that can stimulate and renew the skin's collagen and thus consequently improving the texture and reducing sagging of the skin. The high quality handle with German imported motor can be used for life. Total 8 cartridges supply treatmetn for whole body. 1.5mm is for the forehead and around the eyes, 3.0mm is for the dermis layer--face treatment, 4.5mm is for the SMAS layer--face treatment, 6.0mm/8mm/10mm/13mm/16mm for body fat layer. Every cartridge can reach 20000 lines lifetime.      4D HIFU machine uses the power of High intensity focused ultrasound to safely lift and tighten skin. High intensity focused ultrasound is a form of energy that is significantly different than light such as IPL and Lasers or Electrical (Radio-Frequency) energy. HIFU, protects the skin surface, whilst precisely penetrating at deeper depths and higher temperatures than Radio Frequency for example, treating beyond the Dermis and Foundation layers, where structural weakening starts.     Tissue at the target point is heated to 65°C, Thermal Heat is created with the skin tissue creating both spaced ‘wounds ’ and cellular friction - which in turn promotes healing, immediately contracts collagen and stimulates a rapid production. Over the next 90-180 days, the wound-healing response stimulates long-term tissue and leads to further lifting and tightening, with results that can last years.     4D HIFU also helps to improve the tone and all the features of your face such as your eyes, cheeks, mouth, chin and skin also making it a viable alternative to Botox, with the benefit of being able to maintain facial expression. Excellent for post surgical face lift to maintain the lift and treat blood stasis, scarring, and numbness.      This mode could minimize treatment time achieves the great anti-aging result. It will be leading the new treading in the market, and help you to expand your business.

Publish Date: 2021/08/25