Tube Settlers vs. Plate Settlers: Comparing Lamella Technologies

Description:     Tube Settlers vs. Plate Settlers: Comparing Lamella Technologies     The sedimentation process in both water and wastewater treatment is a physical process which relies on gravity to settle and remove suspended solids. Advanced solids settling processes typically utilize lamella, commonly referred to as tube settlers or plate settlers, to reduce the vertical distance solids particles must fall until hitting a “settling surface”. Higher flow rates, better effluent quality, and more compact sedimentation basins can all be achieved with both types of lamella sedimentation equipment. Although both operate on the same principles of solids settling and can be used as basis of design in many cases, there are several notable differences between the two technologies.     Characteristics of Tube Settlers and Plate Settlers     Tube settlers utilize multiple adjacent tubular channels that are sloped at a nominal 60° angle and combine to form an increased effective settling area. The size and shape of the tubular channels vary by manufacturer. Brentwood’s tube settler design features a trapezoidal shape created by thermoforming PVC sheets. You can learn more about our design process by reading our Thermoformed vs. Extruded Tube Settlers blog.     In contrast, plate settlers use a series of inclined plates, typically constructed of steel, which are spaced two to three inches apart from each other on a 55° to 60° angle to form an increased effective settling area. As a result of these design differences, typical design parameters for these two types differ.     Comparing Design Parameters     It is important to note that there is a difference in application rate (flow rate/coverage area, expressed in gpm/ft2) between tube settlers and plate settlers as a result of different effective settling area terms used, despite settling principles being similar for the two technologies. To provide a more direct comparison, the application rates of tube settlers can be converted to an equivalent “plate” application rate by taking into account the projected surface area of tubes:     As illustrated in the above table, the equivalent maximum “plate” application rates of Brentwood tube settlers are in the same range as a generic plate settler, which has an average application rate of 0.30. IFR6041 tube settlers are the most comparable to plate settlers in regard to coverage area because settler length is similar. However, Brentwood’s other tube settler modules are capable of treating required flow just as effectively with appropriate coverage area. Tube settlers also eliminate cross-flow and eddy currents, which makes flow hydraulics more stable and efficient.     In addition to varying design approaches, there are other advantages and disadvantages to consider when comparing tube settlers or plate settlers for your application:     Tube Settlers     Advantages:             Lightweight PVC results in easy installation and does not require heavy lifting equipment                                     Lower capital cost due to materials of construction                                     Applicable in shallow tanks with underflow velocity concerns                                     Twenty to twenty-five year service life, provided proper maintenance is performed                                     Only PVC tube settlers are replaced at the end of their useful life typically supporting structures and effluent troughs can remain                                     Tube settlers are strong enough to walk on top of for proper maintenance                     Highly customizable to accommodate varying basin configurations     Disadvantages:                     Maximum module vertical height is 41 inches, resulting in a maximum application rate of 3.5 gpm/ft2                       PVC must be protected from extensive UV exposure. Brentwood tube settlers do contain UV inhibitors. AccuGrid protective surface grating is also available for additional UV protection.                 Plate Settlers     Advantages:                         Less limitation on depth                                     Longer lifespan due to material of construction     Disadvantages:                         Two to three times higher capital cost                                     Higher installation cost due to required heavy lifting equipment                                     Deeper basin requirements to accommodate underflow velocities                                     Risk of corrosion in certain environments (certain industrial wastewater applications)       Polyhedral Hollow Ball packing is made from heat resistant and chemical corrosion resistant plastics, and the application temperature in media ranges from 60 to 150 degrees.     Plastic Polyhedral Hollow Ball (PP, PE, PVC, CPVC, RPP ) is also called plastic multi-aspect hollow ball, polyhedral hollow ball packing composed of two hemispheres which will form into a ball. And each hemisphere consists of a number of half fan-shaped leaves, the upper and lower leaves in a staggered arrangement. The design concept is advanced and the structure is reasonable. Plastic Polyhedral hollow balls have the virtue of light weight, wide free space, small wind resistance, and good surface hydrophilic, big full wet surface area and convenient filling in the equipment and sound usage effect.     Plastic polyhedral Hollow Ball can be used in sewage treatment, desulfurization of CO2 in power plant, desulfuration and purified water tower packing. Plastic multi-aspect hollow ball is a new type of high-efficiency tower packing applied in water treatment equipment.     Pall rings: made in various materials, used in massive applications     Pall rings are the most frequently used form of random packaging. They are made of metal and plastic. They also have different applications. Our experts will give you the most beneficial info about pall rings through this blog at Linquip. To find more, read on.     What are Pall Rings?     As said above, pall Rings are a random ring-type packaging with a well-established success background and a globally distributed base. They try to increase the use of packaging by disrupting the flow by providing an increased number of edges while reducing the volume of the ring packing medium itself. Pall rings have  identical cylindrical dimensions but have window rows that improve the surface area size. They are ideal for low-pressure drops and applications with high power. They have randomness and relatively high liquid retention that promotes high absorption, especially if the reaction rate is slow. Pall rings’ cross structure makes them mechanically robust and ideal for deeply packed beds.     What are Pall Rings Used for?     Pall ring is applied in a variety of areas, including:                         Different Separation and Absorption                                     Absorption and Stripping Services                                     Steam Stripping                                     Quench Towers                                     Direct Contact Cooling                                     Reaction Towers                                     Distillation Columns                                     Tower Packing                 Plastic pall rings     Random packaging has been used for over 50 years to boost the efficiency of a tower.     In comparison with high-performance packing, plastic pall rings are less sensitive to liquid distribution quality and have a higher hold-up and residence time. Although plastic pall rings do not have “high performance” characteristics, they are well known for their performance.     Plastic pall rings, as one type of pall rings, can be made of different shapes for different applications. In gas and liquid separators applications, for example, they are increasingly popular. They have excellent chemical resistance, the stability of the temperature, and mechanical strength. They are made of polypropylene pall ring, Polyethylene pall ring, RPP pall ring, PVDF pall ring, PVC pall ring, and CPVC pall ring.     The composition of plastic pall rings varies from the ceramic pall ring and metallic pall ring. Two levels of windows on the cylinders wall and ligules bend inside the ring axes on the cylinders’ wall for the metal and ceramic ring. The plastic cylinder wall is fitted with two layers of windows and the fingers or webs bow inward and form different forms. The handling efficiency of the pall ring is 50 percent greater than the ring with the same decompression condition. The mass pressure is meanwhile at the same treatment half below the Raschig ring. Moreover, the efficiency of transfer will increase by 20%.     Metal Pall Rings     Metal pall rings are a significant type of pall rings. Metal pall rings can be customized into different sizes. In very hostle environments, they are more resistant to corrosion and rust compared with plastic pall rings. Metal pall rings are made primarily from carbon steel, galvanized steel, and other materials. There are two layers of windows on the cylinder wall close to the ceramic pall ring. And there are five ligules in each sheet, which bend inwards into the ring axis.     Metal pall rings are used in quench towers, direct contact cooling applications, atmospheric pressure separation, and absorption applications, places in which vacuum is critical to the low-pressure drop, and applications of steam stripping.     Overview About Mist Eliminators     Mist eliminators, also known as demisters, are devices that remove liquid droplets or vapor from the work atmosphere. This device has found some applications in many industries where such vapors are released as a by-product of the different chemical processes. Manufacturers produce standard or specialized devices to work as an important part of various industrial operations which include absorption towers, distillation towers, separation tanks, gas separators, evaporators, and so on. Various industries like metallurgy, petroleum, medicine manufacturing use demisters in their production processes or environmental protection measures.     Working Principle of a Mist Eliminator     Standard demisting devices work on the principles of inertia and dispersion. The liquid vapor rises with the gas and passes through the eliminator pads. These pads are fitted with wire meshes with openings that correspond to the predetermined average vapor droplet size, which is generally in the range of 3 to 5 micrometers. Due to the increasing inertia of these droplets, they get attached to the wire meshes. With subsequent passes, these collected droplets get heavier and heavier due to the tensile and adhesive properties of liquids, ultimately falling off the pads. In this manner, the vapor liquid is essentially separated from the gaseous emissions passing through standard eliminator pads.     Advantages     Eliminator manufacturers of today produce demisters of various sizes and capillary openings based on the above principle. A standard mist eliminator has various advantages as listed below.     · It is an essentially simple device; its size is only dependent on the gaseous emission pathway dimensions     · For such a basic device, it is highly efficient in removing liquid vapors with minimum disturbance to the actual process     · Eliminators improve the output by removing vaporized impurities; they also make gaseous emissions, safer by helping to separate potentially harmful compounds     · With no external power needed for its operation, it is a cost-saving device     · The liquid deposits may be collected and re-processed     Types     According to the requirements of specific industries, there are various types of these devices produced and operating in several industrial applications. However, we may segregate mist eliminator devices into three basic categories as discussed below.     Standard Mist Eliminator     These are the basic demisters that may be used in normal work environments. These devices can work efficiently in standard gaseous emissions, separating liquefied vapors. The mesh sizes of these devices are bigger, and they can sustain low to moderate amounts of gas pressure.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/26

Types of wear-resistant ceramic pipe and its application in industrial production

Description:     Types of wear-resistant ceramic pipe and its application in industrial production     Including abrasion resistant ceramic pipe elbow, straight pipe , structural tee, head size, radius sections , adjustable pipe , mainly used for the air force , pumping slurry pipeline and other materials . Because the transmission medium with high hardness, flow speed , flow characteristics, can effectively reduce the transmission medium to the wall to produce long-lasting impact, abrasion , corrosion fatigue causes the pipe was gradually worn out speed. 1 , the definition of wear-resistant ceramic pipe Depending on the working conditions of wear on the wear-resistant ceramic pipe lining materials have different choices. Resistant ceramic lined pipe ( lining of aluminum oxide , silicon carbide , zirconia, silicon nitride , sialon , aluminum nitride, boron nitride , etc. ) ; resistant alloy tube ; hexsteel wearable pipe fittings ; rubber resistant steel grinding tube ; wear-resistant plastic tube ; wear-resistant cast stone pipe ; wearable self-propagating composite pipe ; rare earth alloy wear-resistant pipe. 2 , the main application of wear-resistant ceramic pipe In addition to used in coal-fired power plants wear elbow ash , slag pipe , powder , powder tube back , desulfurization pipes , but also widely used in the following industries: Mining : Coal industry CWS , washing mud , mine backfill , mine coal powder ; Metal mines : concentrate and tailings transport wear elbow ; Metallurgy : Steel mill blast of pulverized coal injection , slag and other transmission pipelines ; CAO, zinc Bei sands pipeline , transporting steel alloys, refining , etc. Preferably wear elbow ; Cement : raw slurry wet rotary kiln production line conveyor , coal transportation, upgrading cutting machine , pneumatic conveying finished unloading cement , concrete wear elbow . Chemical : pulverized coal pipeline , transporting raw materials such as silica fume wear elbow . The main application sectors 3 , wear-resistant ceramic pipe In addition to used in coal-fired power plants wear elbow ash , slag pipe , powder , powder tube back , desulfurization pipes , but also widely used in the following industries: Mining : Coal industry CWS , washing mud , mine backfill , mine coal powder ; Metal mines : concentrate and tailings transport wear elbow ; Metallurgy : Steel mill blast of pulverized coal injection , slag and other transmission pipelines ; CAO, zinc Bei sands pipeline , transporting steel alloys, refining , etc. Preferably wear elbow ; Cement : raw slurry wet rotary kiln production line conveyor , coal transportation, upgrading cutting machine , pneumatic conveying finished unloading cement , concrete wear elbow . Chemical : pulverized coal pipeline , transporting raw materials such as silica fume wear elbow . 4, the detailed use of wear-resistant ceramic pipe Transport has been around electricity, metallurgy, coal , petroleum, chemicals, building materials , machinery and other industries, and high-speed developing. When the wear-resistant ceramic grinding large pipeline materials (such as ash , coal , ore concentrates , tailings, cement, etc. ) , there is an abrasion resistant ceramic pipe faster , especially wear elbow faster. When the pipeline in the wear-resistant ceramic having a strong corrosive gas , liquid or solid , there is a problem of corrosion and wear-resistant ceramic pipe is quickly destroyed . When the pipeline resistant ceramic materials with higher temperatures , there is a heat-resistant steel prices are very expensive problem. After resistant ceramic pipe market, these problems are solved. Wear resistant ceramic pipe is widely used in mine backfill serious , transporting ore concentrate and tailings , coal-fired power plant feed powder , slag , ash and other wear-resistant ceramic pipes are also very suitable . Resistant ceramic pipes are transported strong corrosive acid, alkali , salt and abrasive both solid , wear-resistant ceramic pipe ideal liquid delivery . In the high-temperature corrosion resistant ceramic pipe , high temperature or high-temperature ablation wear occasions using very safe and reliable. 5 , wear-resistant ceramic pipe production technology Resistant ceramic pipes are using self- propagating high temperature synthesis - centrifugation manufacture. After that is placed inside the centrifuge tube seamless steel mold , joined in the steel and aluminum oxide powder mixture , the mixture called thermite in chemistry , centrifuge tube mold rotation reaches a certain speed , through a Mars ignite thermite , thermite now own , the combustion wave spread rapidly , following violent chemical reaction occurs when the spread.     Chapter One – What are Alumina Ceramics?     Alumina Ceramic Liner is an industrial ceramic that has high hardness, is long wearing, and can only be formed by diamond grinding. It is manufactured from bauxite and can be shaped using injection molding, die pressing, isostatic pressing, slip casting, and extrusion.     Products made from alumina, some of which are shown in the image below, are wear, chemical, erosion, corrosion, and high temperature resistant and bioinert, making them perfect for medical implants.     Alumina ceramics are a technical ceramic due to their properties and price to performance ratio. The classification of alumina ceramics is based on their alumina content, which can vary from 70% to 99.9%. The higher the purity of alumina, the stronger is its wear and corrosion resistance.     Chapter Two – Properties of Alumina Ceramics     Alumina ceramics are made from a white granular material that is similar to table salt or a very fine silky dense powder. The three general types of alumina are hydrated, calcined, and tabular. Each type has a variety of grades.     The types of alumina vary according to the amount of soda (Na2O), iron (Fe2O3) and silica (SiO2) they contain as well as their chemical purity and the properties of the powder used in the production process.     Calcined:     To produce calcined alumina, aluminum oxide is heated to 1050° C or 1900° F. The super heating removes all chemicals and water creating a very pure, 99.99% pure, with a 9 on the Mohs hardness scale, which is just below a diamond’s Mohs rating of 10.     Hydrated:     Alumina hydrate, or alumina hydroxide, is used as a glaze because of its ability to stay in suspension in glaze slurries and adhesive qualities.     Tabular:     Tabular alumina is produced by heating aluminum oxide to 1650° C or 3000° F. It has a high heat capacity, excellent thermal temperature, strength, and volume stability. It is formed from sintering balls of calcined alumina, which are crushed to form a powder. Tabular alumina has high refractory properties, mechanical strength, wear resistance, chemical purity, dielectric properties, and corrosion resistance in acids and alkaline.     Properties of Alumina     High Temperature Ability     Alumina is used in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres up to 1650°C or 2900°F as well as vacuum environments of 2000°C or 3600°F. At 1000° C, it keeps 50% of the tensile strength it has at room temperature. While metals are weakened by high temperatures, alumina ceramics retain their strength when they return to normal temperatures and are unchanged.     Abrasion Resistant     Abrasion wears down a material by rubbing it away by friction. The resistance to abrasion means a material will maintain its original structure even after mechanical wear. Alumina ceramics are high in abrasion resistance due its hardness.     Chemical Resistance     Alumina is resistant to acids and alkalis at high temperatures because it is inert, not chemically reactive, which makes it resistant to the effects of chemicals such as solvents and salt solutions.     Density     The density of a material is its mass divided by its volume, which is read as grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) where grams is mass and cubic centimeters is volume. As the volume increases, the density of the material increases. Alumina ceramics are made from fine particles that do not allow for voids in the material. The fewer voids means the material has high volume and density. The density of alumina ceramics varies according to the temperature. At 25° C, its density is 3.965 g/m3 at standard atmospheric pressure.     Mechanical     The mechanical properties of a material is determined by its strength, which is the amount of stress and strain it can endure. Alumina has superior strength and hardness that improves with the purity of the different grades.     Thermal     Alumina has high resistivity and reduces thermal shock. The increased purity of alumina increases its resistivity.     Dielectric     Alumina ceramics make a perfect insulation material because of its dielectric equality, the inability of an electric current to pass through them.     Hardness     Hardness tells the ability of a material to be able to endure mechanical wear and abrasion. Alumina ceramics are harder than steel and tungsten carbide tools. They are harder than sapphire and are excellent for mill linings and bearings. According to Rockwell hardness, alumina ceramics are at HRA80-90, second only to diamonds and above stainless steel.     ZTA ceramic liner is zirconia toughenedalumina ceramic liner , belonging to inorganic non-metallic materials, is a good wear-resistant materials. Zirconia toughening alumina ceramic is added pure 99 Zr02 zirconia, the particles form ZrO2 toughened alumina ceramic. Alumina toughness can be significantly improved when zirconia is added as appropriate. It can be said that the toughening of alumina ceramics is the toughening method most used at present, and about 20% zirconia (ZrO2) is added to toughen the alumina.     ZTA toughening effect mainly comes from the following mechanism:     (1) to make the aluminum oxide grain refinement.     (2) Zirconia phase change toughening.     (3). Micro-crack toughening.     (4). Crack steering and bifurcation. Zirconia toughened alumina mechanical properties: ZTA     (zirconia toughened alumina) ceramic density > 4.1, Rockwell hardness > 90, Vickers hardness >     1300, fracture toughness 6.0, flexural strength 480MPa, compressive strength 3600MPa, ZTA toughening alumina ceramic liner is added on the basis of alumina zirconia ceramic ingredients, abrasion resistance and toughness between the alumina ceramic and zirconia ceramics, zirconia ceramics because the higher prices, the user once The larger the amount investment, the largest number of manufacturers are mostly European and American companies and BHP Billion and other groups.     What is Concrete Pump Pipe?     Concrete pump pipeline is used with concrete pumps to ensure that the concrete is delivered correctly and safely to where it needs to be. It's an essential part of truck-mounted concrete pumps, trailer pumps, or placing booms. The concrete pump pipe is the most wearing component on a concrete pump as it has the biggest contact and the most friction with the concrete. The durability of pipes is one of the major factors to the pumping efficiency.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/26

Best Men's Linen Shirts and How to Wear Them

Description:     Best Men's Linen Shirts and How to Wear Them     Linen fabric has long been a durable, dependable summer-friendly fabric made from the flax plant. According to Encyclopedia Britannica: “Flax is one of the oldest textile fibers used by humans; evidence of its use has been found in Switzerland’s prehistoric lake dwellings. Fine linen fabrics have been discovered in ancient Egyptian tombs.”     Thanks to its ability to conduct heat well by absorbing and releasing moisture quickly, garments and fabrics made from linen feel cooler in warmer months, making them the ideal option for men looking to elevate their style above the ofttimes chosen cotton t-shirt. This is why come summertime, you'll see linen pants, a blazer, a jacket, and even a full on linen suit - the breathability of pure linen natural fiber makes linen shirts a classic menswear staple for the warm weather wardrobe. Whether it be for a special occasion, that extra hot summer day, or even everyday wear, there seems to only be one real drawback of natural fabric texture Wrinkles.     It's time you forget what you’ve been told about the fiber from flax you know as linen. Times have changed, and it's time to appreciate the very look and nature of the loosely woven classic fabric. The wrinkles of linen are actually what make it great. When someone wears the flowy fabric, it’s showing an ease – a comfort in wearing a fabric that couldn’ t be too formal if it tried. Sure, suits and dress shirts can be found frequently made from linen, but its inherent qualities keep it apart from a tightly woven super 150’s wool-silk or a 100% Egyptian cotton broadcloth.     How to Wear Linen Men's Shirts     Introducing a linen shirt into your wardrobe – warm weather wardrobe, everyday wear, or somewhere in between – might seem intimidating. If you are used to swapping out your button front shirts for a simple polo style, then you can easily grab one of these and wear it just about the same way.     Do: Wear it untucked, with casual jeans, chinos, or shorts whenever you feel the need to be cool - both literally and figuratively.     Don’t: Take it too seriously. Relax. There is a common misconception that linen is an unforgiving luxury fabric that needs to be reserved for a special occasion. That is simply not true. Linen can be washed and dried just like all of your other clothes (although always read washing instructions) so it should be worn like all your other clothes.     Do: Consider wearing it into the fall. Much like linen sheets (we are a big fan), linen clothing is actually great to incorporate into your cold weather wardrobe as well. It’s a sturdy fabric that can actually help regulate temperature all year long, not just during the hot summer days.     Don’t: Overthink it. Pick a style that you think you would wear and then go for it. The nature of this style is to be lightweight and airy, so don’t go for anything too “slim fit.” Fabric does stretch out a bit over time, but you should still aim to buy the size that fits you naturally.     If you want to feel safe, grab a solid option and ease into the stye. If you’re looking to dive into the deep end of this trend, go for a bold floral print that will surely get you noticed. If you are feeling somewhere in between, don’t worry, there are plenty of options for you guys too.     We’ve picked out 11 men's linen shirts that we think that you should take a serious look at for the warm temperatures that remain.     Why is linen sustainable?     Linen has been the slow burn in a notoriously fickle fashion industry, but the latest figures show that more and more labels are loving it and using it more.     64% of brands used linen to a great extent for the first time - Dior, Fendi, Louis Vuitton     28% were large brands - Fendi, Stella McCartney, Maison Margiela, etc.     49% of designers showcased at least one linen look in their collection (i.e. 18.6% of designers vs. 12.5% in 2020)*     Ladies linen is a much more sustainable fabric than cotton, even organic cotton. This is for a few reasons:     Linen is made from flax, which is a regenerative crop that enriches the soil.     It uses a lot less water than cotton. A linen shirt uses 6.4 litres of water - it's 26 litres for a cotton shirt, according to the CELC (European Confederation of Flax and Hemp).     Most flax is grown in northern Europe - France, Belgium and The Netherlands account for 85% of world production - which cuts down the air miles for the European fashion industry.     Thanks to its temperature-regulating properties, it can be worn comfortably all year round.     Linen's fibres are much longer lasting than cotton, which makes it more expensive to produce but it will last much longer in your wardrobe.     It is an anti-bacterial fabric which means you don't need to wash it as often.     There's no plastic in this natural material, so no microplastics will be washed into the sea when you wash i.     How to Wear a Linen Suit     It happens year after year: every single summer you get invited to a wedding and every single summer it gets uncomfortably hot. You could just keep wearing your regular office-friendly wool suit, sweat through it, send it to the dry cleaner, and repeat. Or you can buy a L     linen ladies suit.     Here is the good news: There are linen suits all over the place right now, at every price and every cut, and they’re very good. Here is the better news: there are more reasons than ever to grab one. People are dressing more comfortably, but also more elegantly! People are consuming more sustainably! People are wearing suits because they actually want to! It’s time for the linen suit.     Before you scroll down or run off and buy your perfect linen suit, here are some thoughts on the best way to wear one. First, there might be a point in the dressing room, or when you decant your online order, where you doubt this whole thing. You’ll think of retired guys drinking mojitos on vacation. You’ll think of drunk idiots at the Kentucky Derby. You’ll think that this was a bad idea. Banish these images from your mind and instead of focus on the image of a rakish Italian street style star, or Seth Rogen on the cover of GQ. Imagine yourself as someone who is eternally on vacation, Moondog-style, instead of someone who only takes one once a year and then gets a sunburn.     Next, make sure your suit fits you well in the shoulders—which is the one feature of a suit that’s basically impossible to mess with—and, assuming it does, take it directly to the tailor. It doesn’t matter if you’re wearing your suits baggy and easy or slim and tidy these days, it still needs to fit well. Linen loses its shape the moment you look at it. If it doesn’t look good at 8am, it’s sure as hell not going to look good at 8pm.     Finally, don’t turn into Jay Gatsby. Just because you’re wearing a linen men's suit doesn’t mean you need to go full “gentleman at a lawn party.” Unless you’re actually attending some grand outdoor event, you might just look like a rogue groomsman. Yes, lightweight suits look good with lightweight clothes. Yes, light colors look good with other light colors. But don’t lose your mind with vests, suspenders, and light pink ties. A simple crewneck T-shirt and some leather dress shoes usually does the trick. Wear a pinky ring and some ribbed socks if you want to be a little extra. Or jazz your suit up with one of those printed camp-collar shirts and a pair of canvas sneakers. Mojito-guy would never wear that.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/26

O-Ring Types and O-Ring Material Makeup - A Guide

Description:     O-Ring Types and O-Ring Material Makeup - A Guide     Rubber O rings are a form of gasket or seal that features a round cross-section. They are commonly used to prevent leaks of either fluids or gases from occurring in products, systems, or machinery and find use across a variety of industries. Because of their low cost, simple production process, ease of installation, and pressure resistance, they have found application in a lot of common products, such as automobiles and engines. The aerospace industry useso-ringsin many types of rockets and aircraft applications.     This article will review information on the types of o-rings and material options available, along with their suitability for different applications.     Selection Factors     The fact that o-rings can function in so many applications is largely attributable to the fact that there is a wide range of materials available from which they may be fabricated.This range of selection allows the designer to consider the properties of the material and select a suitable option based on how well that material performs against the expected operating conditions of the application. The factors that are usually considered when selecting a material for an o-ring include:     The material’s compressibility or hardness (durometer)     The performance against environmental and operational conditions, including:     Oils     Solvents     Acids     Bases     Steam     Fuels     Corrosive chemicals     The abrasion performance of the material     The permeability of the material (permeation)     The cost of the material     O-rings are usually produced from some form of elastic polymer or elastomer. These polymers are cured, often through vulcanization, resulting in improved strength, durability, and elasticity. Different materials have different properties, though, with some exhibiting greater elasticity and others possessing more tear-resistance.     PTFE     Temperature range:Between -100 degrees Fahrenheit and 500 degrees Fahrenheit.     Suited for:PurePTFE O ringsare very rigid and hard to apply, butPTFEencapsulated o-rings handle surface wear well, in addition to exhibiting corrosion and abrasion resistance, non-permeability, chemical inertness, and low absorption.     Avoid:Like silicone,PTFEis rigid and is better suited to static applications.     Applications:Examples of PTFE o-ring uses include automotive steering devices and paint guns.     O-rings Information     Solid O-ring is solid-rubber seals that are shaped like a doughnut. When pressed between two mating surfaces, O-rings block the passage of liquids or gases.     Types of Seals     O-rings can form a static or dynamic seals. A static seal is where the O-ring does not move and is used simply for containing pressure or maintaining a vacuum.Dynamic sealscan be reciprocating (like a piston and cylinder), or rotating (shaft rotating in a housing). Straight threads used with O-rings provide a better seal than tapered threads used alone.     A boss seal is also an O-ring, however it does not fit the standard sizes for an O-ring. A boss is a cylindrical projection on a casting or forging. The end of that projection is machined to provide a flat, smooth surface for sealing.     Application Methods     Axial squeeze and radial squeeze are two methods for applying an O-ring. An axial squeeze is when the ring is compressed parallel to a line drawn through the center or axis of the ring. In a radial squeeze the ring is compressed between the internal diameter (ID) and overall diameter (OD).     Specifications     Imporant specifications for hollow O-ring include size, material, hardness rating and features.     X-Rings     Rubber X-ring is a torus (donut) shaped seal with a clover shaped cross section. Because of the clover design, the X-ring has a lower coefficient of friction and has multiple sealing surfaces on each side increasing its sealing ability and reduces the amount of force needed to seal and so extends the life of the seal. X-Rings are interchangeable with O-rings especially where lower coefficient of friction values are required.     X-Ring Advantages     The design of an X-Ring eliminates the effect the flash lines has on its sealing ability. In an O-Ring flash lines are on the outer and inner diameter, which are sealing surfaces. Excessive flash can effect the ability of the sealing surface to provide a tight seal. On an X-Ring flash is not an issue.     The grooves on the sides of the X-Ring can retain lubricant, lowering friction and extending the life for the seal. Also, the X-Ring’s clover leaf design provides 2 sealing surfaces per side as opposed to one sealing surface per side on an O- ring. With the multi-sealing seal points on one ring, less compression is needed to obtain an effective seal. Less friction and wear will ultimately increase service life and reduce downtime.                                 All-rubber V-rings     Rubber V-ring is used for rotating shafts in an extremely wide range of applications. The V-ring can be used alone to protect a wide assortment of bearing types from contaminants while reliably retaining the lubricant. They are also often used as secondary seals to protect primary seals in highly contaminated environments.                                     V-rings are installed on shafts and their thin, tapered lip seals against a counterface perpendicular to the shaft. V-rings have an interference fit on the shaft, rotate with it and act as flingers. Angular misalignment of the shaft relative to the counterface can be tolerated. V-rings provide reliable sealing even if the shaft is out-of-round or rotates eccentrically. The amount by which the shaft can be displaced axially is governed by the permissible displacement of the V-ring relative to its counterface.                                                                                                     V-rings are made entirely of elastomers without fabric or metal reinforcement and are therefore easy to install. They can be stretched and, depending on size, pushed over other components like flanges, pulleys or even housings. This is a very valuable feature, especially when replacing a seal.     Four Reasons to Use Air Hoses Instead of Hydraulics     In the manufacturing world you might ask when or why should I use air hose instead of hydraulic hose?Pneumatics follow the same power movement principle as hydraulics except it involves the movement of gases instead of fluids.While pneumatics and hydraulics each have their ideal places in a wide range of industrial operations, there are times when it’s beneficial to use air hoses to meet your needs.     Four Reasons to Use Air Hoses     1. Clean power: Pneumatics is cleaner than hydraulics.If there’s a leak, only air isreleased instead of slick fluids which are dangerous and hard to clean.     2. Easy Set-up: It is normally easier to set-up because many industrial facilities already provide compressed air.     3.Long Term Investment: Pneumatic equipment might be more expensive overall than hydraulic equipment, but generally it requires less maintenance and has a longer operating lifespan.     4.Speed:Although air hoses aren’t made for high pressure applications, they provide for rapid movement operations.They are designed with speed in mind, not strength.     The real-world applications for air hoses are seemingly beyond measure as they can be used in all forms of industrial automation.Air hoses can supply power to cylinders and vacuum pumps as well as funnel compressed air to jackhammers, staplers and impact tools.They can even be used to provide vehicle functionality for mobile equipment and can also be used in areas of agriculture, mining and drilling.Having been designed for age, weather, and oil resistance, this type of hose is suitable to transport air in multiple workplace environments and conditions.     High Quality Of PTFE Rod From Tenglong Sealing     PTFE Rodhas excellent resistance to most chemicals and solvents and is capable of operating at high and low temperatures. It also has a very low coefficient of friction and is commonly used in food contact applications. It provides good thermal stability and has good electrical properties, but is not suitable for wear application and is difficult to bond.     Applications:     Slide bearings, insulators and rollers.     Key Features:     Temperature: -200°C to +260°C.     Very good sliding properties and anti-adhesive.     Excellent resistance to chemicals and UV.     Outstanding resistance to low and high temperatures.     Food approved.     Standards:     Complies with EC No. 1953/2004 and EC No. 10/2011for plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food.     Complies with FDA food regulations21 CFR 177.1550 and FDA 21 CFR 175.300.     Offers a class UL94 V-0 flammability rating, meaning the polymer will self-extinguish after removal of flame.

Publish Date: 2021/08/26

How to set up a network camera

Description:     How to set up a network camera     Network cameras (a.k.a IP cameras) are gaining popularity rapidly among consumers due to their ever-improving quality, features and declining prices. An HD network camera that normally cost over $300 in 2012 can be bought under $60 in 2021. Traditional typical users of network cameras are enterprises that have professionals for installation and maintenance. Many consumers choose the DIY approach to set up their cameras. This article is meant to help these users. It by no means can replace the help from professionals that is needed for a variety of reasons – complexity of a video surveillance system, user lacking required basic computer/network knowledge, demanded expedition…     There are literally thousands of models of network cameras in use. It is impossible to have a set of instructions fitting every model perfectly. We use a popular model (M1034-W) by the network camera inventor – Axis – in this article. The setup steps for the vast majority of other network cameras are either identical or very similar to the ones described here.     A word about ONVIF?. Detailed explanation about ONVIF is beyond the scope of this article. An average user may only need to know that ONVIF is an international standard. An ONVIF conformant camera offers the maximum compatibility and interoperability with many software and hardware on the market. Generally speaking, ONVIF conformant cameras have more features and better quality than traditional non-ONVIF network cameras.     You can find numerous ONVIF conformant models on any popular online stores such as Amazon or eBay     For this article, we assume the reader has very basic computer and network knowledge. Technically savvy users may find many parts are too rudimentary for them.     Network configuration     Network cameras are different from web cams and analog CCTV cameras. Web cams are connected to computers by USB cables. Analogy CCTV cameras are connected to servers by coax cables. Network cameras are connected to a network for access just like computers are connected to networks. Each network camera is actually a computer with a CPU and memory. I process images from CCD (Charge-coupled Device) or CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensors, send to clients (e.g. apps) and hosts a web server.     Configure Apps     Most users want to access their network cameras outside their LANs (e.g. outside their homes). The next section will explain how to access the cameras via Wide Area Network (WAN) (e.g. via cellular connections). Unless you are experienced with the camera and its configuration, it is extremely important to make sure the camera works on your LAN first. This is because the WAN access will never work if the LAN access does not work. If it works on your LAN, it will be very easy to diagnose any issues with the WAN access.     Many apps have automated the setup process to a great degree, and it usually takes less than 1 minute to set up a camera before starting enjoying its video.     The following is for setting up a camera with apps Onvier for Android, and IP CENTCOM for Windows 8.1/10 and Windows Phone.     What is a Video Codec?     A small article about how the video codec work and why this software is very important for the modern media industry.     Background: the idea for this article was born out of a discussion with my friends about media software: how it works and why it’s important. After that, I understood that what’s really needed is a short, simple article about it. So here I’ve explained why we need codecs and given an overview of how they work.     What is the Internet of Things?In the broadest sense, the term IoT encompasses everything connected to the internet, but it is increasingly being used to define objects that "talk" to each other. "Simply, the Internet of Things is made up of devices – from simple sensors to smartphones and wearables – connected together," Matthew Evans, the IoT programme head at techUK, says.By combining these connected devices with automated systems, it is possible to "gather information, analyse it and create an action" to help someone with a particular task, or learn from a process. In reality, this ranges from smart mirrors to beacons in shops and beyond."It's about networks, it's about devices, and it's about data," Caroline Gorski, the head of IoT at Digital Catapult explains. IoT allows devices on closed private internet connections to communicate with others and "the Internet of Things brings those networks together. It gives the opportunity for devices to communicate not only within close silos but across different networking types and creates a much more connected world."Why do connected devices need to share data?An argument has been raised that only because something can be connected to the internet doesn't mean it should be, but each device collects data for a specific purpose that may be useful to a buyer and impact the wider economy.Within industrial applications, sensors on product lines can increase efficiency and cut down on waste. One study estimates 35 per cent of US manufacturers are using data from smart sensors within their set-ups already. US firm Concrete Sensors has created a device that can be inserted into concrete to provide data on the material's condition, for instance.Subscribe to WIRED"IoT offers us opportunity to be more efficient in how we do things, saving us time, money and often emissions in the process," Evans says. It allows companies, governments and public authorities to re-think how they deliver services and produce goods.                     "The quality and scope of the data across the Internet of Things generates an opportunity for much more contextualised and responsive interactions with devices to create a potential for change," continued Gorski. It "doesn't stop at a screen".                             The latest Internet of Things news                             Where does the IoT go next?                             Even those who have purchased one of the myriad smart home products – from lightbulbs, switches, to motion sensors – will attest to the fact IoT is in its infancy. Products don't always easily connect to each other and there are significant security issues that need to be addressed.                             A report from Samsung says the need to secure every connected device by 2020 is "critical". The firm's Open Economy document says "there is a very clear danger that technology is running ahead of the game". The firm said more than 7.3 billion devices will need to be made secure by their manufacturers before 2020.                             “We are looking at a future in which companies will indulge in digital Darwinism, using IoT, AI and machine learning to rapidly evolve in a way we’ve never seen before," Brian Solis, from Altimeter Group, who helped on the research said.                             IoT botnets, created using a network of out-of-date devices took large websites and services offline in 2016. A Chinese firm later recalled 4.3 million unsecured connected cameras. The ease of bringing down the internet using IoT devices was revealed when instead of malicious purposes, the botnet was revealed to have been created to game Minecraft.                             But aren't there privacy implications?                             Everything that's connected to the internet can be hacked, IoT products are no exception to this unwritten rule. Insecure IoT system led to toy manufacturer VTech losing videos and pictures of children using its connected devices.                             There's also the issue of surveillance. If every product becomes connected then there's the potential for unbridled observation of users. If a connected fridge tracks food usage and consumption, takeaways could be targeted at hungry people who have no food. If a smartwatch can detect when you're having sex, what is to stop people with that data using it against the watches' wearer.                             “In the future, intelligence services might use the for identification, surveillance, monitoring, location tracking, and targeting for recruitment, or to gain access to networks or user credentials,” James Clapper, the US direction or national intelligence said in 2016. Wikileaks later claimed the CIA has been developing security exploits for a connected Samsung TV.     What is Battery-powered 4G Camera?     The 4G camera is the mobile monitoring cameras that use 4G LTE network to deliver live-view and send instant alerts. (Similarly, 2g/3g security cameras refer to the ones that work with 2g/3g network)     As the above definition indicates, 4G cellular CCTV cameras require a separate mobile service plan to work. And the cellular data consumption of 4G IP cameras varies, depending on how often you watch live streaming and receive motion detection alarms, etc.     Reolink Go is one of the best choice for the newly-emerged 4G surveillance cameras.

Publish Date: 2021/08/26

Is Rockwool Harmful? Yes, But…

Description:     Is Rockwool Harmful? Yes, But…     Rock wool has long been a popular media for growing hydroponic fruits, vegetables and herbs. However, I’m going to make the case against rockwool and argue why you should never use rockwool again because rockwool is harmful.     This post has gotten a lot of attention recently, and as a result is in the process of being updated to include more information. I cite studies and in no way reference any particular company – I am talking about mineral wool as a growing media in this post.     If you want better alternatives to rockwool, please check out my hydroponic media guide.     It’s Not Environmentally Friendly     I believe in environmental sustainability – it’s one of the reasons I’ve chosen to grow hydroponically. Rockwool doesn ’t score well on the environmental scale. It’s not a natural material. Manufacturers use combine chalk and rock and then heat them up to around 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Next a stream of air is blown through it, resulting in extremely thin fibers of the rocky material. As the strings are blown out, they bunch together and form the material that you see for sale at the local hydroponics store.     Basically, they are taking two materials that are 100% natural (chalk and rock) and turning them into a hybrid material that will remain in that form forever. When you throw away your old rockwool it’s going to sit in a landfill looking just like that for a long, LONG time. If you absolutely insist on using it, try to save your rockwool in between your growing season and reuse it.     It’s Not Healthy To Be Around     Not only is rockwool unfriendly to the environment – it’s also potentially harmful to your health. New blocks can contain a lot of dust and loose fibers that can get in your eyes, mouth, skin and lungs. It’s similar to asbestos in the sense that the little fibers can lodge themselves in your lungs if you’re working with it a lot. It may not be as toxic as asbestos, but why take the risk? Not something that I’m willing to gamble with if I don’t have to – there are plenty of other hydroponic media choices! If you’re using rockwool, you should be using a mask, goggles and gloves when you work with it to protect yourself.     Ceramic fibers     Ceramic fiber was designed and developed for applications in which the composite matrix/resin temperature can go, for example, as high as 1000°C in a corrosive and oxidizing environment.     The ceramic fibers are made from precursor fibers or a very thin tungsten-core wire. Materials like boron and silicon carbide vapors are deposited onto a red-hot precursor moving very slowly. Some of the ceramic fibers are large-diameter monofilaments.     The ceramic fibers show high-strength and high-modulus properties in both tension and compression applications. In compression, unidirectional boron composite stress–strain curves are linear to failure (400,000 psi failing stress) and exhibit a modulus of 30 million psi.     Because ceramic fibers have large diameters, prepreg tapes formed from the fibers are usually unidirectional only.     The ceramic fibers are uniquely suited to handle the high-temperature consolidation conditions of titanium and ceramic matrix composites. Only limited quantities of ceramic fibers are manufactured annually but production can be rapidly expanded to meet new demands.     Bio-soluble fiber paper SUNTHERM HB (Bio-soluble) Fiber Paper     is a new develop at the basic of the traditional ceramic fiber, the main components is MgO, CaO, and contains a small amount of organic binder, with integrated fire resistance, heat separation and thermal insulation functions, can be used at higher temperatures filed, bio-soluble fiber can replace part of the traditional ceramic fiber, the use of temperature can reach 1050C, and have excellent eco-friendly performance.     Applications     ?Furnace expansion joint filler     ?High temperature gasket     ?High-temperature insulation backing     ?Fire protection facilities     ?Molten metal splash protection     ?High-end household appliances insulation device     Features     ?Easy twisting, shaping and cutting     ?Excellent machining performance     ?Excellent tensile strength     ?Acoustic performance     ?Good anti-spalling properties     ?Low thermal conductivity, low thermal capacity     ?Resistance to wind and erosion, long service life     ?Excellent thermal insulation, fire protection,     thermal insulation and acoustic performance     What is Ceramic Fiber Bulk?     Ceramic Fiber Bulk is a high temperature refractory insulation material manufactured from high purity alumina and silica raw materials on computer-controlled furnaces to provide consistent fiber properties. Fibers are lightweight, chemically inert, and have all the positive characteristics of ceramic fiber. Bulk insulation is the perfect solution for insulating intricate spaces, parts, or shape forming for various commercial and industrial applications. Our office currently stocks “spun” ceramic fiber bulk rated for temperatures up to 2300o F and 2600o F. If a different temperature rating or grade is needed, please contact our office directly for a custom quote.     Blown vs Spun vs Chopped Fibers?     In addition to varying temperature grades, Ceramic Fiber bulk is available in blown, spun, or chopped fibers. Blown fiber has the smallest fiber size and is more flexible in comparison to the other grades. Spun fiber is very similar to blown, with the exception of longer fibers and a greater rupture /  tensile strength. Spun fiber is still light and airy in appearance and is the most commonly used fiber in applications.  Chopped fiber has the largest fiber size and is bulky in appearance. Our office currently stocks spun fiber but if another grade is required, please contact us for a custom quote.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/26

Aluminum Foil Rolling Mill — Produce high-quality foils with high efficiency and low cost

Description:     Aluminum Foil Rolling Mill — Produce high-quality foils with high efficiency and low cost     As the requirements for aluminum foil output and quality continue to increase, the requirements for aluminum foil production equipment, such as aluminum strip and foils mill tools, are becoming more and more stringent. Today, rolling mills are required to produce foil products with a thickness of less than 6 microns and a width of more than 2 meters, and the speed should reach more than 2,000 meters per minute. In order to meet these requirements, the aluminum foil rolling mill is equipped with the most advanced high-speed rolling technology, and provides comprehensive process support, so that the rolling mill can be put into production at a record speed, and after changing the rolling mill settings, it can be produced from the first coil. The technical indicators of the qualified products for sale are better than the industry standards.     It’s a well-established question and one that we’ve been too afraid to ask our mothers: Should we use the shiny or the dull side of aluminum foil when we cook? And have we been doing it wrong this entire time?!     Concerned cooks, you can breathe a sigh of relief: As it turns out, there’s no “correct” side of aluminum foil to use when cooking so using it on either side is not one of the cooking mistakes that could ruin your food. According to the Huffington Post, they’re both equally effective at heating your food—so just choose whatever side you prefer.     If there’s no trick to it, then why, exactly, does aluminum foil have a shiny and a dull side in the first place? Experts at Reynold’s Kitchen say that the difference between the two sides is due to a manufacturing process called milling, during which heat and tension is applied to stretch and shape the foil. Two layers of foil are pressed together and milled at the same time, because otherwise, it would break.     “Where the foil is in contact with another layer, that’s the ‘dull’ side,” Reynold’s explains. “The ‘shiny’ side is the side milled without being in contact with another sheet of metal. The performance of the foil is the same, whichever side you use.”     But pay attention if you are using non-stick foil; in that case, there is a difference between the two sides. Since the non-stick coating is only applied to one side, you’ll want to use the dull side. Side note: There will be a label that designates the “non-stick side” in case you forget.     However, aluminum foil could pose a serious risk to your health—so maybe you should stop cooking with it altogether.     Aluminum foil might be one of our favorite inventions ever. Whether we're grilling up some fresh veggies in a neatly-wrapped parcel or folding a leftover slice of pizza to save for later, it's the perfect solution to pretty much any kitchen situation. Seriously, our list of uses for this shiny staple is endless.     We noticed that the handy tool comes with two distinct sides: a shiny, reflective side and a dull, matte side. That got us thinking. Is there a purpose behind the two different textures? Should we be using different sides for certain reasons? Have we been doing everything wrong for years?!     "Regardless of the side, both sides do the same job cooking, freezing and storing food," Mike Mazza, marketing director for Reynolds Wrap, told TODAY Home via email. "It makes no difference which side of the foil you use unless you're using Reynolds Wrap Non-Stick Aluminum Foil."     Non-Stick foil actually has a protective coating on one side, so the company recommends only placing food on the side marked "non-stick" for maximum efficiency.     Aluminum foil, or tin foil, is a paper-thin, shiny sheet of aluminum metal. It’s made by rolling large slabs of aluminum until they are less than 0.2 mm thick.     It’s used industrially for a variety of purposes, including packing, insulation and transportation. It’s also widely available in grocery stores for household use.     At home, people use aluminum foil for food storage, to cover baking surfaces and to wrap foods, such as meats, to prevent them from losing moisture while cooking.     People may also use aluminum foil to wrap and protect more delicate foods, like vegetables, when grilling them.     Lastly, it can be used to line grill trays to keep things tidy and for scrubbing pans or grill grates to remove stubborn stains and residue.     Aluminum is one of the most abundant metals on earth.     In its natural state, it is bound to other elements like phosphate and sulfate in soil, rocks and clay.     However, it’s also found in small amounts in the air, water and in your food.     In fact, it’s naturally occurring in most foods, including fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, grains and dairy products.     Some foods, such as tea leaves, mushrooms, spinach and radishes, are also more likely to absorb and accumulate aluminum than other foods.     Additionally, some of the aluminum you eat comes from processed food additives, such as preservatives, coloring agents, anti-caking agents and thickeners.     Note that commercially produced foods containing food additives may contain more aluminum than home-cooked foods.     The actual amount of aluminum present in the food you eat depends largely on the following factors:                         Absorption: How readily a food absorbs and holds on to aluminum                                     Soil: The aluminum content of the soil the food was grown in                                     Packaging: If the food has been packaged and stored in aluminum packaging                                     Additives: Whether the food has had certain additives added during processing                 Aluminum is also ingested through medications that have a high aluminum content, like antacids.     Regardless, the aluminum content of food and medication isn’t considered to be a problem, as only a tiny amount of the aluminum you ingest is actually absorbed.     The rest is passed in your feces. Furthermore, in healthy people, absorbed aluminum is later excreted in your urine.     Generally, the small amount of aluminum you ingest daily is considered safe     Seamless steel pipe production line is mainly single-chain type cooling bed cooling bed, a double-stranded cooling bed, the new chain cooling bed, stepping rack cooling bed, screw-type cooling bed.     1, single-chain cooling bed More use of single-chain cooling bed climbing structure. Cooling bed and fixed by the forward rail transport chain composed of a set of transmission. Placed between two steel dial grip forward transport chain, fixed steel rails bear the weight of the body. Single chain cooling bed transport chain finger means of the forward thrust friction of the steel pipe and the fixed rail to generate rotary motion, while relying on the weight of steel and the angle of lift, the steel pipe is always abutted against the forward transport chain finger, achieve a smooth pipe rotation.     2, double-stranded cooling bed Duplexes cooling bed transport chain from the forward and reverse transport chains, positive and negative chain of transmission of each set. Placed between two steel dial grip forward transport chain, the reverse chain bear weight steel body. Duplexes cooling bed transport chain use the forward thrust of the steel pipe pulling claw run forward, using the inverse chain steel pipe friction generated continuous rotary motion. Reverse chain movement also makes steel always leaning forward transport chain, finger, smooth rotation and uniform cooling.     3, the new chain cooling bed A combination of single-stranded and double-stranded cooling bed features cooling bed, cooling bed into the uphill sections and downhill sections. The uphill sections of the transport chain by the forward and reverse transport chain consisting of a double-stranded structure, positive and negative together to make steel continues to rotate forward, doing sport climbing. Downhill section of the forward transport chain and single-stranded structures arranged in parallel steel rails, relying on weight to achieve rotation, do landslide movement.     4, stepping rack cooling bed Stepping rack cooling bed bed composed by two racks, assembled in a fixed beam, called static rack, another assembly in moving the beam, called the move a rack. L The agency action, moving the pipe rack will hold up the rise, due to an inclined angle, steel rolling when it is lifted once along the tooth. Move up to the highest gear position, stepping body movements so that the moving direction of the rack to the cooling bed one step away from the output. Lifting mechanism continues to operate, drive and move the rack dropped into a given rack alveolar steel, steel toothed rack along a fixed rolling once again, after moving back to the initial position of the rack, complete a cycle.     5. Screw the cooling bed Main drive screw is cooled by means of the screw and fix the cooling of the gantry and other components, the screw including a screw rod and screw helix. Face fixed cooling gantry above the spiral rod above and below the spiral, steel body weight is borne by the fixed cooling stand. Main drive screw driven synchronous rotation, spiral screw driven steel roll forward on the fixed bench cooling, cooling. Single chain does not fit the cooling bed continuous operation, better cooling bed duplexes, the new cooling bed chain effect and low cost, stepping rack cooling bed is generally used in large or high profile production line /Content/upload/2021797717/202108251334033471709.gif, screw-type cooling bed are generally smaller diameter seamless steel pipe for cooling.     Heat treatment services for stainless steel and metal alloys     Solution annealing (also referred to as solution treating) is a common heat-treatment process for many different families of metals. Stainless steels, aluminum alloys, nickel-based superalloys, titanium alloys, and some copper-based alloys all may require solution annealing.     The purpose of solution annealing is to dissolve any precipitates present in the material, and transform the material at the solution annealing temperature into a single phase structure. At the end of the solution annealing process, the material is rapidly quenched down to room temperature to avoid any precipitation from occurring during cooling through lower temperature ranges. The single phase solution annealed material will be in a soft state after treatment.     The solution annealing treatment is required prior age hardening / precipitation hardening. The single phase microstructure created during solution annealing is required prior to age hardening, such that only the precipitates formed during age hardening will be present in the final product. The composition, size, and quantities of those precipitates formed during aging will determine the final product's hardness, strength, and mechanical properties after aging. It is critical that the structure be properly solution treated prior to aging in order to meet all of these requirements.     High-quality solution heat treatment     We recognize how important it is to our clients that the finished product we create demonstrates exceptional quality, and purity. To achieve this goal, we have invested heavily in our machinery, as well as implemented rigorous quality-control standards that ensure your work is completed to the very highest standard at every stage of solution heat treating. Our experienced team is able to successfully undertake heat treatment solution on a wide-variety of projects.     Definition of Cast Roll and Forged Roll     We will introduce cast roll and forged roll.     Forged rolls offer outstanding internal and surface soundness and meet customers’ requirements for strength, hardness, and reliability. Manufacturer produces forged rolls on advanced liquid forging hydraulic presses and  heat treat by means of double and progressive induction to guarantee that our products have excellent levels of chemical pureness, solid metallurgic structure, and high resistance. The Reinosa steel plant’s latest developments in forged back-up rolls produces a superior product compared to cast back-up rolls. The structural homogeneity of forged rolls enables optimal performance in the mill.     The twin-roll plate casti roll is not completely equivalent to the roll on the twin-roll plate and strip casting machine. It is a deformation tool and also functions as a water-cooled crystallizer in the process of casting the roll. When working, the outer surface of the roll sleeve of the casting roll is in contact with the hot molten metal, and the inside of the roll sleeve is washed by powerful cooling water to quickly take away a large amount of heat, and there is a strong heat exchange between them. Casting rolls not only bear the rolling pressure of deformed metal, but also bear huge heat exchange stress. Therefore, special requirements are put forward for the cast roll sleeve material and the cast roll structure. The selected roll sleeve material can withstand the alternating heat. Load, have sufficient heat transfer capacity, do not chemically react with molten metal, and have sufficient strength and rigidity to ensure the smooth progress of the casting and rolling process.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/26

Gaming chair guide: Expert shares how to buy a gaming chair

Description:     Gaming chair guide: Expert shares how to buy a gaming chair     What is a gaming chair?     There's nothing particularly unique about gaming chairs, except the style. Sure, you'll find everything fromgaming armchairstogaming chairs that bring you down close to the floorand everything in between. But these days, the term "gaming chair" tends to denote a specific type of office chair with a leather or faux-leather build, a high-back race car-style seat and colorful patterns.     1. DXRacer Racing Series Gaming Chair     DXRacer was the first brand to produce this style of gaming chair back in 2006 and has grown to offer many different shapes and styles — most built on the same race car chair design. This model uses an artificial polyurethane leather with high density foam and a carbon fiber texture on the seat. You also get strap-on lumbar and neck pillows, and a number of colors and patterns to choose from.     Since their inception, gaming chairs have grown incredibly common behind esports teams, Twitch streamers, YouTubers and other gaming personalities — leading to a surge in popularity.     Are gaming chairs ergonomic?     The word "ergonomic" gets thrown a lot in marketing — especially when it comes to chairs — ultimately, ergonomics is all about customizability.     "If I had to pick one important thing, it's that a chair be easily adjustable" said Karen Jacobs, a board- certified professional ergonomist and clinical professor occupational therapist at Boston University. Specifically, she explained, you want a chair whose height, tilt and armrests are versatile, and then you want to actually learn and use those adjustments so you can get that ideal sitting position at a desk. In fact, it's best if you adjust it throughout the day to vary your posture just a bit, rather than staying in one formation. So, in summary, adjustability is key.     2. GTRACING Gaming Chair     There are dozens of chairs using this racing seat design, but with different features. Many more affordable chairs like this popular model on Amazon — whose more than 18,500 reviewers left it a 4.5-star average rating — allow the back to recline but don't allow for the full seat to tilt. If you're sitting at a desk for long periods, you’ll likely want that full tilt mechanism.     It can be tempting to lean forward during an intense gaming session, too, but you don't want to sit like this for very long. "The chair isn't providing the support you need," noted Jacobs. You want to be able to tilt the chair back and forth to promote some movement. In addition, she said, you want some cushion in the armrest and a porous, breathable material in the seat, neither of which is particularly common among gaming chairs. The lower the price, in fact, the quicker the faux-leather will start peeling and the seat cushion will wear down to its rock-hard bottom.     None of this is to say gaming chairs are terrible. Certain models do allow you to lean back and elevate your legs, much as you would on a couch, which will be decently comfortable. Jacobs also mentioned that if you're sitting back, the extra high back support can be nice, provided you have support for your neck, too — a lot of gaming chairs come with neck pillows, though some may be more comfortable than others.     3. Secretlab Titan Gaming Chair     Unlike more affordable models, the SecretLab Titan — built primarily for medium-to-larger folks — has full tilt functionality and adjustable lumbar support within the backrest. It also comes in fabric and NAPA leather variations, giving you a few more options in terms of materials.     Gaming chair versus office chair?     I get it: Gaming chairs look cool, and might feel a bit more comfortable at first blush. But just because a seat is comfortable when you first sit down doesn't mean it's going to be good for longer sessions at your desk.     "Typically, it can take a week or longer to really evaluate a chair for comfort," noted Jacobs. If you can, find a company and retailer that will let you try the chair out for at least a week, if not more so you can dial in the adjustments and decide whether it's right for you.     Ultimately, the chair you get will probably depend on your use case. If you want a chair that'll let you kick back on soft leather for an hour or two, a gaming chair may fit the bill. But if you're working from home or gaming for hours on end, you're probably going to get more for your money with an office chair designed for long sitting sessions. High-end, well-known office chairs like the Herman Miller Aeron and Steelcase Gesture are hard to beat when it comes to adjustability, comfort and long-term durability, but more affordable models like the Komene Mesh or HON Ignition can do the trick, as well.     How to Choose the Right Bar Stool     Choosing the right type of commercial furniture is crucial, as it does not only define the entire look of your shop or office, but also influences customer impression of your business. This is even more important for businesses in the food and dining industry; bar and restaurant furniture are integral in creating the perfect ambience and theme for your interiors, which can make or break the customer’s dining experience.     For owners in the process of designing their bars or restaurants, one of the first things to look at are the chairs and bar stools. These are the cornerstone of your establishment’s dining space and are crucial to the entire dining experience. Selecting chairs is actually easy as they are often sold in sets. For bar chair , however, the process of choosing can actually get tricky. To help you decide which type of stool to use, we have rounded up some do’s and don’ts that you ought to follow:     Do: Measure your counter or table height.     For bars and restaurants, table height is usually at 40 to 45 inches. In this case, you can easily narrow down your selection to 30-inch bar stools. At the same time, measure its width and make sure that there’s still space for your customers to comfortable ease their way into or out of their seats.     Don’t: Choose a bar stool with no back if your table is not high enough.     Bar stool without backs is usually used when customers are more likely to lean on the table while watching the game, drinking, chatting, etc. However, they might get uncomfortable if there is not enough support, so you’d better choose a stool with arms and a back in this case.     Do: Consider using metal bar stools for your bar.     Metal is easy to clean, affordable, and stylish enough to match most countertops and tables. If you have a wooden floor and counter, it creates a contrast between modern and rustic design. An example of a very simple and minimalist metal barstool is our Kellis Stool.     Don’t: Use a metal bar stool with back and arms support for small spaces.     Metal bar stools with back and arms support may limit the space and are more appropriate for a home kitchen or bar (but this can work if you have swiveling bar stools). As much as possible, choose stools that occupy minimal amount of space, but make sure they’re still comfortable enough to accommodate even people with larger body types.     Do: Go for wooden bar stools if you want a more country and rustic look     Wood and woven stools offer a more traditional feel, usually made of dark woods, painted woods, and sometimes with leather cushion. These stools are the top choice for designers going for the vibe of sports bars, classic 50’s bars, or European-styled restaurants. Nextrend offers several wooden barstools such as the Destiny Barstools.

Publish Date: 2021/08/26

Steel Gratings vs Stone Gratings: Which Is Best For You?

Description:     Steel Gratings vs Stone Gratings: Which Is Best For You?     Gratings are designed for high impact and high load applications. The most common materials for grates are steel or stone.     Steel grating is an essential structural component of many builds, particularly in commercial and industrial spaces.     Steel is used in grating due to the following reasons:     Strength: Steel has exceptionally high tensile strength. It is a durable alloy that is made up of active materials that discourage dislocation at an atomic level.     Durability: Due to its insusceptibility to rot, pests are kept at bay. You can count on steel whether in high heat, extreme cold, gale force winds or torrential rain.     Sustainability: Steel is one of the world's most recycled materials. It can be melted down and re-fabricated an infinite amount of times without losing its structural integrity and highly sustainable. It has a global recycling rate of 90%. However, some critics have pointed out that the high energy used in melting down the steel for reuse may cause more harm in the long run.     However, there are several downsides to steel gratings, namely:     Susceptibility to theft: Due to the rising value in scrap metal globally, steel grates have often become a target for theft.     Susceptibility to rust or extremely expensive: There are several types of steel grates, all of which are susceptible to rust except for stainless steel or galvanized steel. Maintenance costs will need to be taken into account if replacements are required, as rust weakens the metals grates over time. However, if designers choose stainless steel or galvanized steel, they run into the risk of going over their budgets because these metals are costly.     Slippery surfaces: Some bumpers and designs may be added to increase friction. However, these steel gratings are still very slippery when wet.     Higher heat absorption: Due to its metallic properties, steel grates tend to absorb and retain heat rapidly. Steel grating could lead to an uncomfortable environment for users over prolonged periods, as the ambient temperature could rise as the day passes.     Not aesthetically pleasing: There are limitations to colors and design applications for steel gratings. The overall perception of steel gratings is also more industrial-looking and less premium-looking.     Stainless steel is one of the world's most versatile and valuable materials for many good reasons. It can be used in a variety of ways. It is widely used in bathrooms and toilets due to its sanitary value. Here are the top 5 benefits of stainless steel gratings:     Strength: Stainless steel has a force that can be retained at both high and low temperatures.     Cleanliness: Stainless steel is one of the most hygienic materials because it doesn't support the growth of bacteria. Also, it is effortless to clean.     Corrosion Resistance: Stainless steel is very hardy because this metal stands up well against corrosion, rust, and water. A protective film over the metal prevents it from reacting with other organic materials.     Recyclability: Stainless steel can be recycled, which is great for sustainability efforts.     Durability: Due to its strength and resistance to corrosion, stainless steel is very durable.     However, as most already know, its biggest drawback is that stainless steel is extremely expensive and will not be feasible for most applications. On top of that, as with other metal grates, stainless steel grates absorb heat rapidly, causing heat rings and may raise ambient temperature artificially.     Mild Steel Grating     These gratings can be used in many different ways. It can keep many chosen structures clean and tidy. However, it has weak tensile strength compared to its counterparts.     Galvanised Steel Grating     Galvanized steel gratings have a glossy look and finish. It is ideal for industrial purposes because of its advantages. Here are some benefits of galvanized steel gratings:     Extended Service Life: Galvanized steel gratings can last for more than 30 years, even when exposed to the most corrosive environment.     Maintenance Costs: Its maintenance costs are relatively low because it doesn't need painting and further maintenance.     Scratch Protection: Galvanized steel grates are protected from scratches or abrasion when they come into physical contact with machinery or footfall.     Adaptability: This grating could be applied to any structure of any shape and size.     However, it is costly and does not look aesthetically pleasing compared to stone gratings.     Aluminum Grating     Aluminum grating is an ideal choice as it is a lightweight and corrosion-resistant material. We use aluminum for a variety of industrial applications due to its versatility and durability. Again, aesthetics is the main issue with architects.     Steel gratings are the most common form of gratings in the world today. However, many architects are increasingly choosing to use stone gratings over steel grating because of its dramatic style and beautiful aesthetics. With stone gratings, designs can achieve the following effects:     Rust and corrosion prevention     Absorb less heat     Sustain load specification     Achieve greater slip-resistance     Less susceptible to theft     Rise Requirements     The IRC code does not allow a distance greater than 7-? of an inch from one step/tread to the next.     Run Requirements     The “run” is the measurement of the tread, which needs to be a minimum of 10 inches if the tread has an overhang on it (see image).  This is a measurement from the nose of the tread to nose of the tread.  You are not required to have a nosing/overhang on your stair treads. But if your stairs don’t have a nosing you are required to have a tread that is at least 11 inches long.     Variances     From the top flight of stairs to the bottom of the stairs, each individual riser cannot exceed a difference of 3/8 of an inch.     Nosing Requirements     The nosing on treads, believe it or not, has a code minimum and maximum of how far the nosing projects over the next stair. Nosings are required to overhang a minimum of ?-in. to a maximum of 1-?-in.  Also the maximum nosing radius cannot exceed 9/16 of an inch.     Remember to Include Flooring     All of these measurements include the finished flooring, so don’t forget to take those thicknesses into account when planning your stair dimensions.     New anti-slip, non-pinned, self weighted reinforced plastic trench cover     This new Oxford Plastics trench cover has an innovative Flexi-Edge system which greatly reduces trip hazards for pedestrians.     The underside and edge of the Oxford Low Pro are made from a soft flexible material which grips the surface underneath the board and helps to reduce any unwanted movement.     These rubber edges can be replaced and recycled, so you can extend the life of your Oxford Low Pro.     Its innovative design reduces installation time as there is no need to bolt the product down, but is still very stable.     FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES     Heavier that traditional trench covers thanks to its PVC anti slip edge     Central section made from glass reinforced composite     Very stable without bolting     Takes up any cambers in the pavement.     Greatly reduced trip hazard for pedestrians.     Covers a 27.5 in trench.     Supports a weight up to 553 lbs     Shock resistant.     Long lasting product - Flexible edges can be replaced.     Anti-trip flexible edge.     Quick installation - does not need to be bolted down.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/26

How to Choose the Right Bed for Your Bedroom

Description:     How to Choose the Right Bed for Your Bedroom     Beds – we all love them, don’t we? Getting a good night’s rest is paramount to living a productive and healthy life. It’s important to choose a bed that fits your lifestyle and sleeping preferences. You also want a bed that’s comfortable to lounge in on the weekends.     Choosing a bed is kind of like choosing a sofa. There’s so much to consider about this central and important piece of furniture that it can be quite stressful. Beds are often the focus of a bedroom because they are usually the largest piece of furniture that goes inside one. Because we use them on a daily basis, we really can’t get away with making the wrong decision and just living with it, the way we could with an accent chair or side table.     If you’re thinking about buying a new bed, then this article will help guide you through the process of selecting the right bed for your bedroom and lifestyle habits!     Bed vs. Headboard     The first step in your bed buying process is to determine whether you would like a bed or a headboard.     Beds are great at ensuring a consistent style of design on the whole piece of furniture from the headboard to the feet. They sometimes require a bit more coordination for the installation and logistics. If you want to move a bedroom bed, it’s usually tougher because you would need to take it apart (if you can) and then move each part separately.     On the other hand, headboards will require an attaching a separate bed frame to hold the mattress. Headboards are easier to move around than beds. You can purchase a bed frame that hides underneath your mattress so that the headboard is the only item that you see around your bed. Relocating a headboard and bed frame is typically easier because all you have to do is detach the headboard from the bed frame itself. You can also change out your headboard pretty easily if you want to change the decor style of your bedroom!     Beds are a bit more luxurious and give the bedroom a more complete look. Some people opt for beds in their master bedroom as it is the largest, and headboards in the secondary bedrooms which have less space.     Types of Beds     Platform Bed: Platform beds are great because they don’t require a box spring. They come in a variety of styles to suit your bedroom decor theme. Platform beds typically sit very low off the ground so you’ll have to buy risers if you need room for storage underneath your bed. Because of their boxy nature, platforms are often associated with mid-century modern design. It is often made of wood and finished in a warm brown hue.     Canopy Beds: Canopy beds are great for bedrooms with high ceilings. Canopy beds feature four poles at each corner of the bed connected by four beams. The beams are sometimes left bare and other times, sheer curtains are hung from them, giving privacy to the bed itself. This is definitely one of the larger choices for a bedroom so make sure your room is quite spacious!     Poster Beds: Poster beds, or four-poster beds are made with four poles at each corner. Poster beds date back to the 16th century. The posters at each corner are typically curved, giving them a traditional look.     Bed Materials     Your bed or headboard can be made out of many different materials. Here are a few common ideas for what kind of bed to choose for your home:     Metal Bed     A metal bed is great for a farmhouse bedroom. They give a vintage appeal and look. It is also much easier to clean and take care of than a fabric headboard which tends to attract dust!     Bed Accessories     Once you’ve decided on a bed, there are a few bed accessories you’ll need to consider purchasing.     Box Spring: Box springs are commonly used for support and height for your mattress. They raise your mattress up so you are not getting in to bed at a very low height from the ground.     Mattress: Of course, you can’t purchase a bed without thinking about the mattress you will put on it!     Bed Sheets: Several sets of bed sheets will be necessary for your bed, as well. We recommend purchasing linen or cotton sheets for the spring and summer, and flannel sheets for the cold winters!     Pillows: It’s a good idea to buy at least two pillows for each bed in your home!     Experts agree that getting good sleep is one of the single best ways to maintain and improve our health. A mattress is a huge factor in our ability to sleep well, yet many people overlook its importance and keep using a mattress that fails to provide enough support and comfort.     How to Choose a Mattress     A new mattress can be a sizable investment, but taking this step can unlock your ability to sleep better. As with any major purchase, you want to make sure that you choose wisely.     To help you get a handle on how to choose a mattress, we break down the key information piece-by-piece. With this guide, you’ll have the knowledge to find a top-performing mattress with the right firmness and features to suit your needs and deliver great sleep night after night.     Mattress Types     If you’re just getting started looking for a new mattress, you’ve probably noticed that the number of options can be dizzying. A helpful way to get your bearings is to start by thinking about mattress types.     Almost all mattresses can be identified as one of five types — foam, innerspring, hybrid, latex, or airbed. Innersprings are the most well-known and traditionally were the mainstay in homes nationwide. In recent years, though, other mattress types have surged in popularity.     These other mattress types have expanded their reach primarily by offering a more dynamic performance. They’ve also become more affordable and accessible with the growth of the online mattress industry.     Knowing the basics about each of these types can serve as a foundation upon which you can continue your search for the best mattress.     Foam: Foam mattress is made entirely with foam and no coils. They tend to provide above-average contouring to the body, pressure relief, and motion isolation, making them a good fit for side sleepers and couples. Among foams that are used in these mattresses, memory foam is the most well-known.     Innerspring: An innerspring mattress has a coil-based support system and few other layers. While the coils offer some support, innersprings often lack in pressure relief. Their sleeping surface is bouncier and has limited motion isolation. With a lower price point, these are more popular among budget shoppers.     Hybrid: Hybrids have two central elements: an innerspring support core and a substantial foam comfort system. The comfort layers can include foam or latex, and sometimes will even include a shorter layer of coils (called micro-coils). These mattresses provide a blend of bounce and contouring with low heat retention and can be a good fit for sleepers in any position depending on exactly how they are built.     Latex: When all of the layers of a mattress are made with latex rubber, some call it an all-latex or true-latex mattress. For simplicity’s sake, we just use the term latex mattress. These offer top-notch bounce and durability with moderate contouring. When made with natural and organic latex, they are a top pick among eco-conscious shoppers.     Airbed: Airbeds are built with an air chamber as their support core. A pump — controlled by a smartphone or remote — is built into the mattress to add or remove air with the push of a button, giving sleepers the utmost in firmness flexibility. Couples love airbeds because each side can be set to a different firmness level.     What’s a Pocket Spring Mattress?     A pocket-coil or spring mattress has metal coils or springs, each wrapped in fabric. Pocket spring beds allow the coils to respond with the shape and weight it feels. This is the main difference between pocket spring and open coil mattresses.     Beds with pocketed coil systems differ from traditional spring beds. Innerspring beds feature generalized support, while pocket springs offer targeted support. These beds even have a memory or latex foam comfort layer to add a bit of cushioning to your bed. This kind of pocket spring bed is known as a hybrid mattress.     Pocket Spring Mattresses     Pocket spring mattress responds better to pain from pressure points than innerspring mattresses. They also reduce motion transfer so you can sleep soundly throughout the night.     Combination sleepers are better suited for pocket spring beds. The coil layers provide your bed with plenty of bounce. The added responsiveness makes it easier to switch sleeping positions. Plus, pocket spring beds promote proper spinal alignment.     Couples can also appreciate a pocket coil mattress. Not only does the design promote good posture, but it also isolates movements. One partner’s movements won’t disturb the other’s rest.     The downside of purchasing a pocket spring bed is they do not contour to your curves. Furthermore, some layers consist of wool and other fibers. This can create an environment for allergens and dust mites to settle and grow. The invasion of allergens can ruin your mattress.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/26