Application of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR)

Description:     Application of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR)     This review paper present the MBBR and IFAS technology for urban river water purification including both conventional methods and new emerging technologies. The aim of this paper is to present the MBBR and IFAS technology as an alternative and successful method for treating different kinds of effluents under different condition. There are still current treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. The review also includes many relevant researches carried out at the laboratory and pilot scales. This review covers the important processes on MBBR and IFAS basic treatment process, affecting of carrier type and influent types. However, the research concluded so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the news approach. The research concluded so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the news approach. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological process (bioreactor systems) including MBBR and IFAS system.     The BioCellTM media are suitable for a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system to provide a self-shedding, self-regulating growth biofilm treatment process. The media can be used for MBBR treatment alone or as an integrated fixed membrane activated sludge (IFAS) process to enhance the effective capacity of existing activated sludge systems.     The BioCellTM medium used in MBBR media or IFAs is a continuous motion caused by air injection and agitator. Specific density of the media can be adjusted between 0.95-1.05 g/cm3 according to customer requirements. However, it should be considered that with the formation of biofilm on the surface of the medium, the actual density of the carrying media will increase.     The main characteristic of Moving Bed Biological Reactor (MBBR) configurations is that there is no sludge recycle from a secondary clarifier. MBBR is essentially a simple, once-through process, where all of the biological activity takes place on the biomass carriers. MBBR is usually followed by a solids separation system such as a secondary clarifier or DAF, in order to separate bio-solids produced in the process from the final effluent. The main advantage of MBBR is robust and simple reduction of soluble pollutants (soluble BOD or COD, NH4 +, etc.), with minimal process complexity, utilizing a significantly smaller footprint when compared to conventional aerobic treatment methods. MBBR is typically used for either high load industrial applications or for robust simple-to-operate municipal facilities.     The Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) process combines the advantages of conventional activated sludge with those of biofilm systems by combining the two technologies in a single reactor. Typically, an IFAS configuration will be similar to an activated sludge plant (utilizing all of the different process configurations such as MLE, UCT, Bardenpho, etc.), with biomass carriers introduced into carefully selected zones within the activated sludge process. This allows two distinct biological populations to  act  synergistically, with the MLSS degrading most of the organic load (BOD), and the biofilm creating a strongly nitrifying population for oxidation of the nitrogenous load (NH4+). IFAS is typically used to upgrade existing plants in order to enable extensive Nitrogen removal, or in designing new plants with significantly smaller footprints for extensive BOD and Nitrogen removal.      The diffuser is the special design for MBBR bio carrier media aeration system. The coarse-bubble design is employed to mix the suspended media evenly throughout the reactor  while  providing  the  mixing energy required to slough old biofilm from the internal surface area of the media and maintain the dissolved oxygen required  to  support the biological treatment process.         Coarse bubble diffuser is made of stainless steel (SUS304 or SUS316L is optional).The  coarse bubble diffuser provides maximum aeration and mixing efficiency.The standard length of diffuser is 600 mm. A 600mm long diffuser can achieve a 1250mm air release circumference.It has a service life of over 15 years.      The dissolved air flotation(DAF) system is designed to remove suspended solids(TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and oils and greases (O&G) from wastewater. Contaminants are removed by using a dissolved aqueous solution of water produced by injecting air into the recirculating stream of clear DAF effluent under pressure. The recycle stream is then mixed with the upcoming wasterwater in the internal contact chamber. Air bubbles and contaminants rise to the surface and form a floating bed material that is removed by a surface skimmer into the internal hopper for further processing.     The initial section of dewatering drum is the Thickening Zone, where the solid-liquid separating process takes place and where the filtrate will also be discharged. The pitch of the screw and the gaps between the rings decrease at the end of dewatering drum, hence increasing its internal pressure. At the end, the End Plate further increases the pressure, so as to discharge dry sludge cake.     Albe Advance Group is the leading industrial water treatment solution provider in Malaysia with decades of experience in providing quality water treatment solutions. We prioritise in providing our clients with a one-stop water treatment centre for industrial water treatment project and services. Having doubts on industrial water treatment qualities? Contact us and let our skilled professionals provide you with a consultation in water treatment program.     In traditional activated sludge plants, biomass form flocks are kept suspended in wastewater and then separated from treated water in a settler; most biomass is re-circulated to the biological tanks, the excess is extracted and sent to sludge treatment.     Luigi Falletti, University of Padova     This technique is the most widespread and well known in the world to treat biodegradable municipal and industrial wastewater (including paper mill wastewater); but it has also disadvantages: it requires large tanks, and pollutant removal efficiency is strongly affected by sludge settleability.     In moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) biomass grows as biofilm on plastic carriers that move freely into wastewater; tanks are similar to activated sludge reactors, and they have screens or sieves to avoid carriers’ loss; aerated reactors are mixed by aeration itself, while anoxic and anaerobic reactors are mixed mechanically. MBBR can be classified into two categories:                         pure biofilm reactors: biomass grows only on carriers without suspended sludge and without sludge recirculation;                                     hybrid reactors: in the same tank biomass grows both as biofilm on carriers and as suspended sludge; part of sludge is re-circulated.                 MBBR have several advantages if compared to traditional activated sludge tanks and to fixed biofilm reactors (trickling filters, submerged biofilters):     -biofilm has high specific activity, therefore high pollutant removal efficiencies can be achieved with smaller tanks than the ones required by activated sludge;     -in plants with a series of MBBR a specialized biomass grows in each tank;     –risk of clogging with MBBR is much lower than with fixed biofilm reactors, no backwashing is required since biofilm in excess is detached from carriers by reactor turbulence itself, and can be separated from treated water by settling or flotation;     -this technology is very flexible in plant conduction: in pure biofilm reactors, the filling degree can be varied according to process requirements, in hybrid reactors also sludge recirculation rate can be varied.     Several kinds of carriers are used in MBBR: they can be classified according to material, shape, porosity, dimensions, specific surface. Among these characteristics, specific surface is particularly important: it represents the surface which is available for biofilm growth pr. cubic meter carriers. For each kind of carrier, part of specific surface is protected and the remaining part is external; biofilm grows almost only on protected surface, because external surface is exposed to collisions among carriers and against reactor walls; so the effective specific surface is only a protected one. First biofilm growth on carriers requires some weeks; bacteria produce surfactant substances, so some scum can be observed during the first days in plant starting .     Carriers can be introduced in MBBR in variable amounts: filling degree is the ratio between the carriers’ apparent volume and the tank volume, and it can vary from zero to a maximum value that depends on the carriers’ characteristics. With higher filling degree, total biofilm surface and pollutant removal efficiency increase, but higher mixing energy is required. The most widespread carriers are made of polyethylene or polypropylene, their density is about 0.95, and usual filling degrees’ range is 30–60%; the characteristics of some kinds of carriers produced by AnoxKaldnesTM Company are listed in table 1.     Possible configurations     Mbbr sewage treatment can be applied for wastewater treatment in several plant configurations:     1. pure MBBR biofilm before an activated sludge plant: this solution is common for concentrated wastewater treatment;     2.upgrading of overloaded activated sludge plants by conversion into hybrid MBBR;     3.tertiary biological treatment by pure biofilm MBBR after an activated sludge plant;     4.complete biological treatment by series of MBBR: pre-denitrification, oxidation, nitrification, post-denitrification.     MBBR have been and are applied to treat municipal wastewater and industrial wastewater including paper mills , winery and dairy . This paper deals with the results of some European full-scale plants with MBBR for paper mill wastewater treatment.     Industry nr. 1 produces about 18.000 m3d-1 wastewater with 2.500–3.500 mg/L COD. The wastewater treatment plant (picture 1) is made of a coarse screen, a primary settler, a fine screen, a cooling system, dosage of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus salts), a biological section and a final clarifloculation. The biological section has a first aerated pure biofilm MBBR filter media with 2.500 m3 volume filled with 40% NatrixTM – O carriers, an activated sludge oxidation tank with 7.500 m3 volume and sludge concentration 4-6 kgSSTm-3, and a secondary settler. The plant must remove at least 90% of COD, 99% of BOD5; maximum pollutant concentrations in final effluent are: TSS < 50 mg/L, tot-N < 4.7 mg/L, P < 0.3 mg/L.     On average basis, the plant has treated an effective organic load of 59.000 kgCODd-1, the first MBBR has removed 51% of COD and the following activated sludge oxidation tank has removed 75% of remaining COD; the whole plant has removed 90% COD and has always respected emission limits.     Industry nr. 2 produces about 18.000 m3d-1 wastewater with 2.000-2.500 mg/L COD. The wastewater treatment plant (picture 2) is made of a cooling system, dosage of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus salts), pH correction and a biological section. The biological section is made of two serial aerated pure biofilm MBBR with 1.900 m3 volume each filled with 20% NatrixTM – O carriers, an activated sludge oxidation tank with 10.000 m3 volume and sludge concentration 2-5 kgSSTm-3, and a final settler. The plant must remove at least 70% COD, 50% total nitrogen and 50% total phosphorus; moreover, maximum TSS concentration in final effluent is 30 mg/L.     On average basis, the plant has treated an effective organic load of 38.000 kgCODd-1, the two MBBR have removed 35% COD, the whole plant has removed 70% COD and has always respected emission limits.     Industry nr. 3 produces 2.800 m3d-1 wastewater 800-1.300 mg/L COD. The wastewater treatment plant (picture 3) is made of an equalization tank with 600 m3 volume, a primary settler (with fiber recovery), dosage of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus salts) and a biological section. The biological section is made of a pure biofilm aerated MBBR with 500 m3 volume filled with 68% AnoxKaldnesTM – K1 carriers, and a secondary settler with polyelectrolyte dosage. Maximum pollutant concentrations in final effluent are: TSS < 35 mg/L, COD < 160 mg/L, BOD5< 40 mg/L.     On average basis, the biological section has treated an effective organic load of 2.660 kgCODd-1, and has removed 90% COD; the final effluent has always respected emission limits.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/18

Best PS5 Accessories For 2021: PlayStation 5 Headsets, Controllers

Description:     Best PS5 Accessories For 2021: PlayStation 5 Headsets, Controllers     The PlayStation 5 launched with a range of first-party PS5 accessories, from the DualSense Wireless Controller to the Pulse 3D Headset and PlayStation Media Remote, but while each of these can enhance your experience in different ways, they're not the only accessories for Xbox worth picking up for your new console. Brands like Logitech, Razer, Samsung, and SteelSeries all have quality products designed specifically for the PS5 (or that will work via backwards compatibility), and now that the PS5 has been on the market for some time, you can find a PS5 accessory for pretty much any specific need at this point. With that in mind, we've rounded up the very best PS5 accessories worth picking up so far, from standard controllers and headsets to flight sticks, racing wheels, external storage, and more.     For more recommendations on PS5 software and accessories for playstation, check out our guides to the best PS5 games of 2021, plus the best PS5 headsets and controllers beyond just the first-party options.     Sony's PS5 DualSense controller is a fantastic upgrade over the PS4's DualShock 4, reshaping the controller to give it a more comfortable, ergonomic shape and more easily visible light bars on either side of the touchpad. Its standout feature is the haptic feedback that, when fully utilized in compatible games, creates immersive vibrations that really let you feel what's happening in the game. Adaptive triggers work in tandem with this as well to further enhance PS5 games, offering different levels of resistance in the L2 and R2 triggers to simulate the feeling of, for instance, drawing back a bowstring. This can also be used to make different weapons, like guns, feel different when switching between them. Overall, the DualSense is an excellent controller that feels kind of magical when its features are fully utilized, and now that two new colors, Midnight Black and Cosmic Red, are available, there's good reason to pick up a second one just to have for multiplayer or switching to while your first controller charges.     Sooner or later, you're probably going to want to pick up a charging station for your DualSense controller, and this official one from Sony can charge two at once, meaning you'll always have a controller ready to go when you get that low-battery notification. It takes a little getting used to, but when you slide a controller in, you'll hear a slight click and see it light up, letting you know it's connected and charging. In terms of convenience, this is easily one of the best PS5 accessories to pick up as soon as you can. No one likes messing with a charging wire.     Surprisingly, the PS5's first-party headset option, the Pulse 3D, is on the more affordable end of the spectrum for quality headsets; however, this is paired with a build that does feel somewhat flimsy, cheap, and easy to break. On the flip side, it delivers rich audio using Sony's proprietary Tempest 3D AudioTech, which really brings surrounding environments alive in PS5 games like Spider-Man: Miles Morales, letting you hear subtle sounds and get a better sense directionally of what's around you. It also supports both wireless and wired connectivity for not only PS5 but also PS4, PC, and Mac, with a battery life of up to 12 hours. At the end of the day, it's still one of the best PS5 headsets to buy, especially if you don't want to break the $100 mark, but there are even better third-party headsets we recommend that fall between $150 and $200.     SteelSeries headsets have been very popular for years, and the Arctis 7P is its next-gen headset designed specifically for PS5, though we like it for its versatility, as you can also use it with PS4, PC, Android, and Nintendo Switch thanks to an included USB-C dongle. Featuring 2.4GHz wireless audio and a low-latency connection, the Arctis 7P also pairs nicely with the PS5's 3D audio tech with excellent sound quality for such a versatile headset. Like the BlackShark V2 Pro, it's also a more durable and comfortable option than the Pulse 3D, with a lightweight steel frame and elastic ski goggle band for an adjustable fit. It also has a retractable, bidirectional microphone for clear voice capture and a 24-hour battery life to last during all-day gaming sessions.     For those planning on streaming their PS5 gameplay on Twitch or YouTube, the PlayStation HD camera is one essential accessory that'll make the entire process a breeze. Featuring 1080p capture, the PlayStation HD camera lets you record yourself and your gameplay by using the DualSense's share button, and by using the PS5's built-in background removal tools, you can add yourself to gameplay videos while streaming in picture-in-picture mode. You can crop the background or even lose it completely if you have a green screen.     The Razer Raion has long been one of our picks for the best PS4 controllers, and it still works great for playing backwards-compatible PS4 games on PS5. Though its layout may look strange, the Razer Raion is optimized for fighting games, and its six-button layout resembles what you'd find on a fight stick. It has a fantastic, clicky D-pad and is lightweight enough to comfortably hold in one hand, letting you tap on the rows of buttons piano-style. However, it also has digital buttons for every DualShock 4 shoulder button and trigger if you prefer to use it that way. Also convenient is the fact that you won't need to switch between the Raion and a more fully-featured Ps5 controller faceplate for things like character customization, as it lets you map the D-pad to the left and right analog sticks. Though the Razer Raion isn't for most PlayStation games and certainly not every type of gamer, for fighting game fans, it's a budget-friendly option that will take your experience in games like Mortal Kombat 11 and Tekken 7 to the next level.     The Victrix Pro FS is on the expensive end of fight sticks, but for hardcore fighting game fans, it's worth every penny, and it's forward-compatible with PS5. The Victrix Pro FS has a premium build made of durable aluminum and authentic Sanwa Denshi parts, its buttons are satisfyingly clicky, and the joystick is equally satisfying to use as well as accurate in its movements. In addition to all the essential fight stick buttons, it has several added features including three programmable buttons, customizable audio, lighting adjustments, and an easy access door for swapping out components. It's also a travel-friendly stick with a removable joystick, a plastic organizer to wrap your cables around, and handles for carrying. Costing as much as a console, the Victrix Pro FS isn't for everyone, but if you're serious about having the best fighting game experience on Ps5 dual charging and competitive play, this is an excellent investment.     As with fighting games, you can certainly use your regular old DualSense with racing games, but if you're passionate about the genre and want a more realistic experience with games like Gran Turismo Sport and Assetto Corsa Competizione, a racing wheel and set of pedals is designed for just that. Released in August 2020, Logitech's next-gen racing wheel, the G923, has everything you need for the best racing experience on dongle Ps5. Its TrueForce technology delivers next-gen force feedback with a physics engine that's directly connected to the wheel for heightened responsiveness. Essentially, the wheel synchronizes with your gameplay to deliver a more immersive and realistic experience. The downside is that right now, TrueForce is supported for only a handful of games: Grid, Assetto Corsa Competizione, iRacing, Gran Turismo Sport, Showrunner, and Dirt Rally 2.0.     The Logitech G923 also features a programmable dual clutch launch assist to get you off the starting line cleaner and faster, a progressive spring brake to simulate a pressure-sensitive brake system, a built-in rev indicator that can show you when you're redlining, and a whole set of customization options via Logitech's G Hub software.     Most flight sticks out there are designed for PC, but with flight sims having a bit of a resurgence recently thanks to games like Star Wars Squadrons and Microsoft Flight Simulator, we're starting to see more options for consoles. The official PlayStation-licensed Thrustmaster T.Flight HOTAS 4 is an affordable option that, crucially, is also widely available to buy. It'll work great with games like Star Wars Squadrons and Ace Combat 7: Skies Unknown.     A great entry-level flight stick for those just dipping their toes into the flight sim genre, the T.Flight HOTAS 4 features adjustable joystick resistance, a detachable throttle, and a dual-rudder system that operates by rotating the handle with an integrated locking system or by the progressive tilting lever. The flight system has five axes, 12 action buttons, one rapid-fire trigger, and one multidirectional hat switch for navigation/panoramic view.     The democratization of music production has meant that just about anybody can make music from their personal computer. As a result, there's a lot of great music coming out from people who wouldn't have been able to create anything 10 years ago.     That said, whatever personal DAW (digital audio workstation) you choose as your preference, you'll need to use plugins in order to procure certain sounds that you'll need for your music. The Complete 2021 Synth & Sound Software Bundle from Applied Acoustics sets you off immediately with a collection of 10 software kits that include psychoacoustic effects, piano tones, strumming patterns, sound effects, arrangements, and more.     Specifically, you'll get the Objeq Delay filter, which grants effects ranging from echoes to modulations to loops. On top of that, the bundle includes a variety of arpeggiators from composer David Kristian, a collection of folk loops from Celine Dion's keyboardist, and a bunch of other stuff that, in total, almost completely encompasses every possible preset or filter you could ever want for creating your own music. You can go through the different plugins yourself, but suffice it to say that musicians have raved about the different features included here. Whether you are an accomplished musician, like many of the contributors to this bundle are, or a novice beginner who is looking to dip your toes into an ocean of different DAW software, there's something of value for everyone who purchases this expansive bundle.     To put the cherry on top, you can get the Complete 2021 Synth & Sound Software Bundle from Applied Acoustics for just $30. If you've bought music plugins online before, you know how expensive they can be, so the value of this deal stands out even more at an average price of just $3 per individual software pack within. Start creating at a higher level and invest in your musical career with Applied Acoustics.

Publish Date: 2021/08/18

What is Marble and how is it formed?

Description:     What is Marble and how is it formed?     Marble is a rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, with the maximum concentration of calcite or dolomite. Marble begins life as sedimentary rock known as limestone, which is a soft stone made primarily of calcite. Sedimentary rock is formed at or near the Earth’s surface by the accumulation and lithification of sediment (detrital rock).     Under heat and pressure caused by magma or the tectonic plates, this limestone begins to recrystallize, changing the texture of the rock and causing the calcite crystals to grow and interlock. Most marbles form at convergent plate boundaries. A large part of earth’s crust is exposed to metamorphism. During the process of metamorphism, the calcite recrystallizes that further changes the texture of beige marble. With the progression of the process, the crystals become larger and easily recognizable.     Marble is formed from limestone by heat and pressure in the earth’s crust. The conditions it is put under will cause the limestone to change in its very makeup, as well as texture and appearance, in a process known as crystallization. Large masses of calcite are created when the original carbonate and fossilized materials are recrystallized. And when there are impurities present in the limestone during this transformation, amazing effects and changes take place in the mineral composition. Depending upon the certain temperature, silica impurities react with the carbonate to produce crystals of quartz, or forsterite. At far higher temperatures and with rarer calcium minerals like larnite, other formations are created within the marble. There may also be a variety of other changes, depending on what’s present during the process, including water or other mineral components. Clay, sand, or chert mineral impurities may often produce distinctive veins and swirls within the marble, producing spectacular patterns and discolorations that homeowners and decorators are highly sought after.     Sedimentary rocks are the one that are formed on or near the surface of the Earth. Erosion, weathering, dissolution, precipitation, and lithification are the most important geological processes leading to the creation of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks were originally sediments, which were compacted under high pressure. Sedimentary rocks are formed through the solidification of sediments. They are formed when minerals and other sediment sit in oceans and lakes for millions of years. This sediment then further gets compressed over time and becomes solid layers of rocks. Further, earth movements can cause sedimentary rocks to be deeply buried or squeezed. As a result, the rocks are heated and put under great pressure. They do not melt, but the minerals they contain are changed chemically, forming metamorphic rocks.     Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have been changed from their original form by immense heat or pressure. The conditions necessary for the formation of a metamorphic rock are very precise and make it harder than sedimentary marble. The existing rock must be exposed to high heat, high pressure or a hot fluid rich in minerals. These conditions are most commonly found either deep in the crust of Earth or at the boundaries of plate where tectonic plates collide. In order to create metamorphic rock, it is vital that the existing rock remain solid and not melt. If there is too much heat or pressure, the rock will melt and become magma. This will result in the formation of an igneous rock, not a metamorphic rock.     What Are the Characteristics of Marble?     White marble is composed primarily of calcite, dolomite, or perhaps serpentine. The chemical composition of marble is composed of the following major constituents: Lime (CaO), Silica (SiO2), Alumina (Al2O3), oxides (NaO and MgO), and (MgCO3 and others). Marble has long been highly valued for its beauty, strength, and resistance to fire and erosion. It is known for its durability and its toughness to combat scratch and heat. The best thing about marble is that it is available in different colors due to the presence of various minerals like sand, silt and clay. Marble is usually a light-colored rock. When it is formed from a limestone with very few impurities, it will be white in color. Marble that contains impurities such as clay minerals, iron oxides, or bituminous material can be bluish, gray, pink, yellow, or black in color. Marbles of extremely high purity with a bright white color is very useful. Marble is a stone with a firm crystalline structure and slight porosity. Due to its structure, marble can be polished to improve its shine and is thus a common and attractive stone for building applications. These numerous virtues of marble make it one of the most coveted choices for the homeowners.     Marble has a diversity of physical properties that make it a useful stone. Below you will find some of the best reasons when marble is considered one of the most coveted choices:-     Value for money and resell value is high: Marble is a sturdy, solid and luxurious material that upgrades every space in which it is incorporated. It will present an elegant and distinguished look that will catch the eye of potential buyers. Marble comes with an everlasting appeal because it doesn’t get old easily. It is a stone which is very appreciated for its resistance and its ability to not lose its beauty over time. It increases the value of the property due to its characteristic combination which makes it a value for money material and it has higher resale value, higher valuation and it is reusable too.     Low maintenance and high durability: Marble requires little upkeep to stay in pristine condition, and holds up exceptionally well to age and wear. It can be easily repaired and re-polished. When you have a marble floor then you do not have to worry about cleaning messy spills and even crayon marks by kids on your floor you can easily clean them from a red marble floor with a damp, soapy towel. A great feature of marble flooring is that they are moisture resistant, which makes the surface easy to clean. Not only marble is easy to maintain, it is durable enough to withstand the toughest bumps. It is highly durable and doesn’t stain or scratch easily.     Wide range of designs of Marble: Marble comes in a wide range of designs, making it an ideal choice for accentuating any type of décor. Marble comes in thousands of colors and shades. The color and grain of marble isn’t found in any other type of natural stone which is why it’s such a timeless and classic look suitable for so many different homes. Its wide range of designs gives designers a chance to show their creativity to match the owner’s taste.     Sealing: Unless the marble is properly sealed or thoroughly clean, it can catch stains easily, and that can bring the look of your kitchen or bathroom down. To prevent this from happening, it is important to get the marble resealed at least once a year.     Etching: Marble can be etched when exposed to acidic items. Etching is the physical change that occurs to marble when acid interacts with the stone’s calcium carbonate makeup. You can use sealing as a protective layer or polishing is required to remove the etching. For example, if a coffee stain over sometime without cleaning, the stain will be permanent.     Marble when used in bathroom walls and floor and when used in the living room floor and walls speaks volume about its application. From floors to counters to walls, you can go all and about with marble and enhance your house’s décor. From kitchens to basements, marble can be used in literally every room of the house. Marble walls give a fresh feeling to your space that reads cleanly. Marble flooring gives off a grand appearance that will take your breath away.     Most of the houses rely on marble flooring for it just amps up the ambience of the house. The compliments are surely on your way if you go for a black marble floor for your living room, bedroom, or just about any nook or corner of the house. To make your walls a statement on its own, use marble instead of the regular material. You will see your house transform for the best and make guests go gaga over the opulence created by it. Beauty is definitely at the top of the list of advantages of marble. A marble dining table will complement just about any dé cor and become a conversation piece with your guests.     One of the many virtues of marble is that it doesn’t erode in water; hence it makes for an amazing floor option. It is a softer stone that can be milled, machined and tumbled, which means it can have multiple uses. Marble has been a mainstay of decorative materials in bathrooms. Marble walls add glamour to your bathroom space and have been a mainstay of decorative material. Marble is a soft stone, and therefore, easy to work with. If you will maintain it properly then your bathroom walls will look incredible for many years to come.

Publish Date: 2021/08/18

Wie Bars mit High-Tech-Ger?ten bessere Drinks machen

Description:     Wie Bars mit High-Tech-Ger?ten bessere Drinks machen     Da Cocktails in Top-Bars immer anspruchsvoller werden, ist mehr Arbeit erforderlich, um sie zu perfektionieren, und vieles davon geschieht jetzt hinter den Kulissen.Anstatt Obst in einen gro?en matel cup & mug zu gie?en, der auf der Theke sitzt, verbringen Barkeeper Zeit in einer Küche oder einem Labor mit Vakuummaschinen, Tischstillst?nden, Industriefiltern und anderen Ger?ten.Eis ist nicht mehr schnellschmelzende Stücke, die aus einer Maschine ausgespuckt werden;es wird mittels Spezialgetriebe oder handgeschnitzt aus kristallklaren Bl?cken durch professionelle Eisschneider in bestimmte Formen eingefroren.Ein leckeres Daiquiri kann Zutaten enthalten, die mit flüssigem Stickstoff eingefroren wurden, destilliert und gekl?rt wurden, alles, um Ihnen davor zu ersparen, MinzsBruchstücke in Ihrem Stroh zu bekommen.     Die Barkeeper verwenden immer noch frische und lokale Produkte, aber sie verfeinern jeden Aspekt der Cocktails, in denen sie verwendet werden, von der Temperatur über die Textur bis hin zum physischen Format.In dieser Diashow schauen wir uns einige der modernsten Ger?te an, die in Bars auf der ganzen Welt eingesetzt werden.     Bei der Herstellung von Infusionen, Tinkturen, Bitter und Sirup setzen Barkeeper feste Zutaten in Flüssigkeiten ein und filtern sie dann aus.Herk?mmliche Filtrationsmethoden umfassen den Einsatz von Sieben, K?setüchern und Kaffeefiltern, aber zunehmend wenden sich Barkeeper zu anspruchsvolleren Techniken wie Buchner Trichter, und zumindest in diesem Fall, ein Weinfilter namens Mini-Jet.Das Ger?t wird hergestellt, um Wei?weine zu filtern, um Sediment zu entfernen und den wine tools zu polieren.Bei Canon in Seattle nutzt der Besitzer Jamie Boudreau den Mini-Jet, um Infusionen und Bitter zu filtern, die er an der Bar zum Verkauf anbietet und in den Getr?nken verwendet.Boudreau sagt, dass dieser Filter sowohl schneller als auch gründlicher als andere Filter ist, obwohl er nur die gr?bsten verfügbaren Filterpads verwendet, um Sediment unter Beibehaltung des Geschmacks zu entfernen.Derzeit macht er drei verschiedene Bitter: Kirsche, Rhabarber und eine Rekonstruktion einer seit langem bestehenden Marke namens Boker's Bitters.Diese werden in einer Reihe von Getr?nken verwendet, einschlie?lich der Fighattan mit Feigengetr?nktem Bourbon und Boker's Bitters.     Die Artesian hat die beste bar set der Welt in 2013 für das zweite Jahr hintereinander aufgestellt, sie umarmt Opulenz in ihrem Cocktailprogramm, serviert Getr?nke wie eine, die mit einem schwebenden Duft-Ballon über dem Getr?nk kommt, und eine andere inspiriert von The Picture of Dorian Gray, die hinter einem Spiegel serviert wird, so dass Sie sich ansehen müssen, w?hrend Sie es trinken.Sogar das ice bucket in Artesian ist schick, speziell für die Bar mit einer Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Maschine wie diese geschnitzt.Sie verwenden diese Maschinen, um sowohl runde Eiskugeln aus Bl?cken zu schnitzen, als auch um Logos auf gro?e Eispucks zu pr?gen.Diese Pucks schwimmen auf den Getr?nken, die in ihren riesigen Cocktailgl?sern serviert werden.     Viele Bars und Restaurants wachsen jetzt ihre eigenen Kr?uter, Früchte und Gemüse auf den Dachg?rten, aber das ist wahrscheinlich eine Herausforderung w?hrend der Winter in Kanada.Der Besitzer der Victoria Bar Shawn Soole hat in Little Jumbo ein hydroponisches System installiert, um das ganze Jahr über Produkte anzubauen.Das Ger?t ist mit dem Hauptwassersystem verbunden und hat Lichter an Zeitschaltern, so dass sie, sobald sie die richtige Sequenz herausgefunden haben, es einstellen und vergessen k?nnen (bis sie hineingreifen müssen und etwas für die Getr?nke pflücken müssen).Sie haben Minze angebaut, um Getr?nke wie die traditionelle Mint Julep und die Pontarlier Julep, plus Basilikum zu machen Gin-Basil Smashes, ein Cocktail, der ein beliebtes Sommergetr?nk in Deutschland ist.W?hrend sie mit der Maschine immer noch die richtigen Wachstumszeiten w?hlen, sagt Soole, er wolle Verbena, Zitronenbaum und Thymian für zukünftige Cocktails anbauen.     In den letzten Jahren sind Cocktails auf dem Wasserhahn zu einem Trend geworden, weil Kunden ausgefallene, leckere Cocktails mit frischen, hochwertigen Zutaten wollen, aber sie wollen nicht auf 20-Minuten warten, bis Barkeeper in jedem Getr?nk Tropfen und Spritzen von 12-verschiedenen Dingen hinzufügen.Mit Cocktails k?nnen Barkeeper eine gro?e Charge auf einmal machen und sie so schnell wie m?glich ein Bier servieren.Und obwohl viele Bars jetzt ein oder zwei auf dem Wasserhahn anbieten, haben sie in Tavernita alle Arten von Bier und wine glass, plus zehn Cocktails auf dem Wasserhahn, und diese beinhalten Zutaten wie Paprika-getr?nkter RoggenWhisky, wine rack-Birnensirup und BBQ-Bitter.Der einfachste Weg, einen Cocktail am Wasserhahn zu servieren, ist, ein inertes Gas wie Stickstoff zu verwenden und es durch die Linie zu schieben, wie man es für Wein am Wasserhahn tun würde.Aber das funktioniert nur bei nicht-carbonatierten Getr?nken wie Netronis und Manhattans (und Sangria auch bei Tavernita).Hier gibt es auch Cocktails, die karboniert sind, wie einen Gin & Tonic mit hausgemachtem Tonikum und einen Cachaca-Drink mit Trauben-Soda.Die F?sser werden alle gekühlt und von ihrem ?batchologen“ zubereitet, deren Aufgabe es ist, mit Pr?paraten sehr anspruchsvoll zu sein und die Inhaltsstoffe nicht nach Volumen, sondern nach Gewicht zu messen.Sie berechnen sogar die Verdünnung im Voraus und fügen dem Fass Wasser hinzu, je nachdem, ob das Getr?nk auf Eis serviert wird oder nicht.     Viele Barkeeper haben sich an Sous-vide Kochtechniken gewandt, um die Infusionen zu beschleunigen und ihre Konsistenz zwischen den Chargen zu verbessern.Die Methode umfasst vakuumdichtende Inhaltsstoffe (und Schnaps) in Plastiktüten und deren Beheizung bei niedriger, kontrollierter Temperatur.Bei Pint Jigger, wahrscheinlich der fortschrittlichsten Cocktailbar Hawaii, heiratet der Besitzer Dave Newman die Sous-Vide-Küche mit einer anderen, neu bekannten Technik: Fass-Aging.Statt einen Cocktail zu mischen und ihn für einen Monat oder mehr in einem kleinen Fass zu altern, kauft Newman Jack Daniel s Holzschips zum Rauchen (aus Whisky-F?ssern hergestellt) und legt sie stattdessen mit den Cocktailzutaten in Mason-Gl?sern in das Sous-vide-Bad.Die Getr?nke nehmen holzige Aromen und eine seidigere Textur nach nur zwei oder drei Tagen im Sous-vide auf, anstatt die gleiche Anzahl von Monaten in einem Fass.Newman hat mit dieser Technik flattergealterte Cocktails gemacht, darunter Boulevardier, Martini, Dark N Stormy und Vieux Carre.     "Wahrscheinlich siebzig Prozent der Cocktails auf der Speisekarte haben etwas, das durch die Zentrifuge gegangen ist", sagt Dave Arnold von Booker && Dax.Die Zentrifuge wird mit einer erstaunlich gro?en Anzahl von Zutaten verwendet, und diese Zutaten werden durch die Zentrifuge, je nachdem, wie sie in Cocktails verwendet werden.Schlie?lich wird die Zentrifuge einfach verwendet, um Zutaten nach ihrem Gewicht zu trennen.In einigen F?llen kann dies als wirklich guter Filter funktionieren, wie wenn Arnold Mandel-Sirup-Orgeat macht oder das Sediment der Bitterstoffe filtert.Er verwendet auch die Zentrifuge bei der Kl?rung von S?ften und bei der Trennung von "milchpwed" Spirituosen.Zur Klarstellung S?fte Arnold die Frucht oder die Zitrusfrüchte, fügt Enzyme hinzu, um sie weiter zu zerlegen (manchmal auch mit Weinfiniermitteln), dann spinnt er sie in der Zentrifuge, um die Flüssigkeiten von den Feststoffen zu trennen.Er sagt, das macht nicht nur sch?ne klare S?fte, sondern erh?ht auch den Ertrag über nur mit einem Entsafter allein.Zum Waschen von Milch fügt er Milch zu Spirituosen hinzu und trennt dann die zerkleinerten Milchstückchen.Es klingt widerlich, aber Getr?nke wie klassische Milk Punches unterziehen diesen Prozess auch, nur nicht in einer Zentrifuge).Die milchgewaschenen Geister haben eine weiche Textur, und wenn sie in Cocktails geschüttelt werden, erzeugen sie einen sch?nen Schaumkopf.Die gereinigten S?fte werden in Rührgetr?nken (in der Regel werden alle Getr?nke mit S?ften geschüttelt, aber diese brauchen sie nicht mehr) sowie in kohlens?urehaltigen Cocktails verwendet, wo sie besser die Fizz des Getr?nks behalten.     Ein Rotary Verdampfer ist eine Miniatur, die immer noch typisch für Chemiker ist, die einige Barkeeper in letzter Zeit verwendet haben.In den meisten L? ndern ist es illegal, die Ausrüstung zu verwenden, um selbstgemachten Wodka zu produzieren, zum Beispiel (zum Teil weil die Regierung Steuern auf den Alkohol erheben will), aber in einigen L?ndern nutzen Barkeeper es, um High-Level-Infusionen, Reduktionen und andere Flüssigkeiten zu schaffen.Sowohl in einem traditionellen Still als auch in einem Rotavap werden Mischungen durch Verdunstung durch unterschiedliche Siedepunkte (in der Regel trennen Alkohol von Wasser) getrennt, aber in einem Rotavap kann dies bei weit niedrigeren Temperaturen getan werden, um empfindlichere Aromen herauszuziehen und zu vermeiden, sie zu verbrennen.Als der führende molekulare Mixologe Tony Conigliaro von der Bar ohne Namen sagt in seinem Buch The Cocktail Lab,"Was ich an dem Rotavar liebe, ist, dass es eines der kompliziertesten Ger?te des Labors ist, aber die daraus hergestellten Produkte sind unglaublich poetisch." Conigliaro betreibt dies immer noch, um Dinge wie Pferdradische Wodka, die in einer Bloody Mary verwendet wird, und eine Portweinreduktion, die in einem Getr?nk mit dunklem Rum und Grenadine verwendet wird.Es kann auch verwendet werden, um alkoholfreie Zutaten wie Orangenblütenwasser, das in einem Ramos Gin Fizz verwendet wird.     Ein Super-Kühler, oder das zirkulierende Bad, kühlt schnell die Zutaten ab, die in seine super-kalte Mischung aus Ethanol und Wasser getaucht werden.In Chicago's Progressive Aviary schwimmen sie etwa acht Minuten lang mit Wasser-Ballons im Bad.Das ist genug, um eine Schicht Wasser im Ballon einzufrieren.Dann knallen sie den Ballon, stechen ein kleines Loch in die Eiskugel, um das flüssige Wasser in der Mitte zu saugen, und ersetzen es durch einen Cocktail wie den Vieux Carre.Dann, um etwas extra schick zu machen, knacken die Trinker diesen Cocktail "in den Felsen" mit einer Schleuder am Tisch.) Staff hier auch tauchen hohe Collins-Gl?ser mit Wasser in das Bad, damit ein ?rmel aus Eis um die Innenseite erfrieren kann.Anschlie?end spülen sie den restlichen slush ab und werden mit einem eisges?umten Glas, in dem sie kohlens?urehaltige Cocktails servieren, gelassen, da die Blasen so sprudelnd bleiben.Sehen Sie sich dieses coole Video des Eisprogramms an.Foto von Christian Seel

Publish Date: 2021/08/18

When Did Socks Become a Thing?

Description:     When Did Socks Become a Thing?     You may have noticed that women basic socks aren’t what they used to be. Think back: for a long time socks were just something you used to cover your feet. Possibly black, probably ankle-height and definitely an afterthought. Socks are now an important part of your outfit at the least, the making of an outfit at most.     Socks have become an area of diplomacy and woke-signalling – the Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau is perhaps the biggest name to use socks in this way, choosing pointedly themed ones for public occasions. Or a telling insight into a political mind: Boris Johnson was criticised recently for not washing his lucky socks, emblazoned with a ruler of the Neo-Assyrian empire King Ashurbanipal, often enough.     Socks are such a basic item that they're easy to take for granted...and leave on the floor, shove under beds, or lose to the dryer monster. (It happens to the best of us.) But socks actually deserve mad props for keeping our wiggly and sometimes stinky feet dry, warm, and free from blisters, so in honor of National Sock Day, here's a little history of how they became a thing and some guidelines on what kind to wear and when…or not.     Until the 17th century, men basic socks were called stockings, but according to Wikipedia, the modern English word sock (first recorded in 1690, btw), evolved from the Old English socc which evolved from the Latin soccus…"a lightweight shoe worn by ancient Greek and Roman comic actors." Socks are worn on our feet (mostly) and come in various lengths, fabrics, colors, patterns, and styles, depending on their intended purpose, i.e. thick wool socks for skiing, thin wool dress socks for business, and short white socks for running. But the first socks were actually made from leather or matted animal hair – called "piloi" in 8th century BC Greece. A thousand years later in the 2nd century AD, the Romans were the first ones to sew woven fabrics together and make fitted socks ("udones").     The oldest surviving socks are a red-orange pair from between 250 AD and 420 AD that were excavated from Oxyrhynchus on the Nile in Egypt. They were made with the n?lebinding technique, which means "knotless netting" and uses a single thread...the precursor to modern-day knitting and crochet. And they have split toes specifically for—gasp!—wearing with sandals. (Which the ancient Romans and Greeks did more or less exclusively, so they get a pass on any fashion judgement.) Speaking of Egypt, socks were so important that alongside all of the gold and jewels, King Tut's tomb supposedly contained several pairs made from linen.     In the Middle Ages, socks were brightly-colored and started becoming more of a fashion statement. As trousers got shorter over the next few centuries, socks got longer…and more expensive. So expensive, in fact, that by the end of the first millennia, socks were actually a status symbol among the nobility, and had also become highly ornamental. #FunFact: a fancy design that's embroidered or woven on each side or the outer side of a sock beginning at the ankle is called a clock. Who knew?     As societies progressed, so did basketball function socks, and they were made from wool, silk, and cotton, depending on a person's economic class (nobles = silk; peasants = wool). Besides being a display of wealth, socks served an important utilitarian purpose since even nobles faced harsh conditions at times. (Indoor heating wasn't a thing until the 20th century, so keeping those piggies warm was essential…frostbite didn't care if someone was wealthy.) Peasants especially were exposed to the elements way more than we are today and needed to protect their feet from the wet and cold. (They also bathed less often, so if you think your teen's basketball socks are stinky, just imagine the funk of a 16th century pair.)     Socks were so critical to life that mending them—called "darning"—was a very important skill. Cold feet led to frostbite which could lead to gangrene which could lead to death, so when a sock had a hole in it, it most definitely got fixed! As early as the 12th century, the heel of a sock was the last part made, which made it easier to replace when it wore out…a very common practice. Sock owners took their maintenance seriously.     The knitting machine's arrival on the scene in 1589 was a game-changer since six pairs of football function socks could be made in the time it took to create one previously, but socks were still hand-knit alongside the machines for another couple hundred years. A tiny percentage are still made that way today. Socks were historically held up with ribbons or ties or by garters since elastic wasn't a thing yet. Until Jedediah Strut's Derby Rib machine in 1758, that is, but it was so expensive that it took almost two more centuries before more socks were held up by elastic than garters. To put it in perspective, in 1899 England, a pair of socks sold for the equivalent of $15 today…a LOT back then.     The next biggest thing to happen to socks was—drumroll please—the 1938 introduction of…nylon. The blended fabric was born, and synthetics changed the sock world, along with the rest of it. With socks now being made from recycled plastics, their evolution has come full circle in the last 80 years. The most common blends today include cotton, wool, and polyester or nylon, but socks are also made with silk, spandex, bamboo, and other fabrics.     Another big moment in the evolution of socks was globalizing production. In 2011, the Datang district of Zhuji in the Zhejiang Province of China was known as "Sock City." Why? Because it was producing 8 billion pairs of socks each year, which was a third of the world's annual total. Finding accurate sales numbers is challenging but suffice to say that BILLIONS of pairs of socks are sold each year for even more billions of dollars, the competition is fierce, and socks are almost as high-tech as electronics in some facets of their engineering.     The Rules of Socks     We've established that socks come in all kinds of fabric configurations and all kinds of styles, some of the common categories being: dress winter floor socks, athletic socks, hiking socks, ski socks, knee socks, tube socks, ankle socks, foot socks, boot socks, novelty socks, booties, slipper socks, tights, and pantyhose. There's no question that with the help of socks, shoes protect your feet from debris, disease, injury, and the elements. But sometimes, it's the outer world that needs to be protected from sweaty or smelly feet. To that end, businesses and venues with dress codes will usually tell you if socks are required (that would be yes 98% of the time). But what about when it's completely up to you? Socially and hygienically, are there times that you should always—or never—wear socks? (That would also be yes.)     Seriously, lost socks are a real and quantifiable phenomenon. But quantum physics theories aside, the average person loses 1,264 socks over his or her lifetime, so where do they GO? One clue is the way that some socks take a detour and mysteriously show up within the next couple of laundry loads. So, they weren't really lost, they were stuck in a fitted sheet, stuck to a sweater, stuck under the upper rim of the washing machine basket, or otherwise occupied for a bit. The socks that are actually lost could be under the bed, they could have fallen out of your gym bag in the locker room or landed in a gutter when you were walking, someone might have thrown a sock away because it had a hole and they didn't know how to darn it, they could be stuck to something neatly folded in a drawer somewhere, or they could actually be IN the washing machine in a hose, filter, or other part, especially if they're small, and ditto with the dryer! (Yes, really...certain models can literally eat your socks.)    

Publish Date: 2021/08/18

Herramientas y equipos básicos de Bar - Guía del camarero

Description:     Herramientas y equipos básicos de Bar - Guía del camarero     La primera vez que camine detrás de la barra, notará todas las wine tools y dispositivos parpadeantes de la barra que pueden ser desconcertantes.En la parte superior de cada botella hay cucharas en espiral, palos de madera en forma elegante, agitadores en todas partes, medidores de nombres extra?os, mezcladores, exprimidores, mazos, embudos y peque?os respiraderos.     ?Dónde quieres empezar?     ?Entender estas herramientas y su uso?     ?Invertir en su propio equipo para que pueda practicar haciendo cócteles deliciosos en casa?     Esto es lo que veremos en este artículo.Vamos a introducir las herramientas y equipos más importantes que los camareros utilizan para hacer bebidas maravillosas, y lo que usted necesita para empezar.     Empezaremos con las herramientas básicas del barman.Estas son las cosas que cada camarero debe llevar consigo en el trabajo.También son útiles para las personas que les gusta beber en casa.     Luego pasamos a un equipo de cóctel específico.Estas son las herramientas que usted debe invertir. Usted puede practicar en casa, celebrar cócteles, o preparar una buena bebida para usted después de un día de trabajo duro.     En el mundo real y en línea, usted puede comprar herramientas de bar en varios lugares.En primer lugar, considere comprar a un minorista local (si lo hay).En las ciudades más grandes, algunos minoristas se centrarán en bares y equipos de cocina.Usted debe ser capaz de comprar herramientas de alta calidad allí.     Para estar en línea, considere los siguientes minoristas:     Amazon.com – hoy en día, usted puede obtener casi cualquier cosa de Amazon.     Cocktailkit.com.au – especialmente útil para los consumidores australianos.Tienen una serie de equipos de alta calidad, a un precio razonable, con sede en Australia.     Productos de bar set. Com – cuenta con una amplia gama de instalaciones de bar, cristalería, cocina y bar familiar.?Compruebe cuidadosamente su sitio web, que es impresionante!     Hay muy pocas herramientas de bar y cada camarero debe llevar consigo en el trabajo.En casi todos los hoteles en los que he trabajado, la gente quiere que los camareros los tengan y los lleven.     Si no lo haces, parece poco profesional y perezoso.Así que si eres camarero, hazte un favor y compra estos artículos lo antes posible.No puedes (y no deberías) esperar que un bar te ofrezca estos servicios.     Además, si usted está buscando un trabajo como camarero, usted debe llevar estos artículos a su clase de prueba.     Las herramientas básicas de camarero en servicio incluyen:     Hoja de Bar - se utiliza para abrir rápidamente botellas de cerveza y otros usos temporales.Nunca se sabe cuándo o qué hoja será útil.     Cuchillo de wine rack / amigo del camarero / llave de vino - para abrir botellas de corcho, botellas de cerveza y otros usos temporales.     2 bolígrafos – llevar al menos 2 bolígrafos.Uno puede usarlo, uno en caso de que pierdas el primero, dejará de funcionar, o tendrás que dejarlo.     Encendedor - incluso si no eres fumador, el encendedor es útil.Para los cócteles, se utilizan para encender el entusiasmo naranja o para encender a los tiradores.En el bar, se pueden utilizar para encender velas o ayudar a los fumadores necesitados.     Si desea practicar un camarero en casa, construir su propio bar familiar, o celebrar una fiesta de cócteles, estas herramientas no le llevarán lejos.     Claro, puedes encender cerveza y wine glass, encender velas y jugar a la Cruz de suma cero, pero si te vas allí, será un cóctel bastante malo.     Así que si realmente quieres hacer cócteles, tienes que invertir en equipos de cóctel.     He dividido este dispositivo en dos categorías."Lujo" de lo esencial y no esencial.     Lo más básico es que usted debe invertir en bartender tools y equipos de bar tan pronto como sea posible.Usted será capaz de utilizar estas herramientas para hacer una variedad de cócteles deliciosos, incluso si se trata de una List a minimalista.     Los artículos "de lujo" no esenciales son herramientas "bien poseídas" o que pueden ser útiles pero que pueden ser reemplazados por artículos de la lista de "necesidades".Cuando empezaste, no eran necesarios.     Un buen cuchillo formará parte de cualquier herramienta de mezcla sólida.Lo usarás todo el tiempo para cortar las raciones, limones y Lima, y cualquier fruta o verdura que finalmente aparecerá en tu cóctel.No hay nada peor que tratar de empu?ar un cuchillo contundente y frágil, así que invertir en un buen cuchillo.     La tabla de cortar es una herramienta que no necesita usar la cabeza cuando está cortando.Necesitas algo para cortar, y las tablas de cortar son más higi énicas que los escritorios.También ayudará a mantener su cuchillo afilado durante más tiempo.     El hielo es la última cosa que la gente que acaba de llegar a un camarero quiere hacer.Esto se da por sentado y nunca se considera.Pero el hielo es uno de los ingredientes más importantes para hacer cócteles.Enfría su bebida y diluye el alcohol - una característica básica de un cóctel sabroso.     ?Así que necesitas herramientas para usar el poder del hielo!     Primero, necesitas un cubo de hielo para que no tengas que correr de ida y vuelta de la nevera.     Segundo, necesitas una cuchara de hielo.Trata de no usar tus manos para conseguir hielo.No es higiénico.?Hagas lo que hagas, No uses un vaso!Los trozos de vidrio pueden romperse en hielo y terminar en la bebida de alguien.Es peligroso...     Por lo tanto, invertir en una cuchara de hielo: -).     Si no tienes una cuchara de hielo, puedes usar tu jarra de Boston como una cuchara de hielo temporal.Véase Boston Shaker infra.     JIG es un peque?o dispositivo de medición utilizado por los camareros detrás del bar.Se utilizan para medir con precisión los ingredientes de un cóctel para que pueda mantener el equilibrio.     Cuando empiece a trabajar, se recomienda encarecidamente el uso de jigs.Verter "latas" gratis es preciso y ciertamente más rápido, pero por eso la mayoría de los bares de cócteles prefieren usar jigs.Este es el método más fiable para medir con precisión el líquido en un vaso.     Aunque he sido camarero durante tanto tiempo & he trabajado en un bar gratuito, mi patrón predeterminado es usar jigs cada vez que hago cócteles.     El Decantador rápido es el respiradero que se encuentra al final de la botella del bar.Pueden ayudarle a controlar el flujo de vertido de la botella y medir su volumen de vertido libre con mayor precisión.En resumen, ayudan a acelerar el proceso de fabricación de bebidas.     No necesariamente llamo a la barra de casa de las aves de velocidad "esencias", porque usted puede simplemente medir con precisión con un cabrestante.Pero son esenciales detrás del bar.Si su objetivo es convertirse en un camarero, entonces sin ellos, la velocidad de la bebida será demasiado lenta, y será mejor que se acostumbre a ellos ahora.     Boston Shaker es un kit de vibración de dos piezas.Uno es más peque?o que el otro, así que puedes golpearlos juntos para formar un sello apretado, y cuando lo sacudes, el líquido no salpica en ninguna parte.     Casi todos los camareros del planeta usan el agitador de Boston como su herramienta preferida.Son rápidos, fáciles de usar, fáciles de filtrar, y pueden ser utilizados como sustitutos de cucharas de hielo o como contenedores de mezcla para mezclar cócteles.     Cuando quiera comprar un traje de Boston Shaker, elija un traje de lata de 2 piezas en lugar de un traje de lata de vidrio.Si usted utiliza un agitador Boston a menudo, el vidrio eventualmente se romperá, por lo que usted puede obtener una mejor relación calidad - precio con una caja de esta?o.     Para cualquier tipo de bebedor, cantinero u otra persona, las herramientas de cantinero en servicio son esenciales.Así que asegúrate de conseguir los art ículos primero.?Las personas que beben en casa pueden irse sin cuchillas de bar, pero son baratas, así que cómpralas de todos modos!     Una vez que tenga esto, comience a navegar por la lista de artículos necesarios para hacer cócteles y anote cada elemento de la lista antes de ver artículos de lujo.     Si no tienes equipo, vale la pena considerar comprar un traje de cóctel.Un traje de cóctel robusto y decente como este incluirá la mayoría de los artículos necesarios & tal vez algunos artículos de lujo.     A continuación, usted puede simplemente recoger otras cosas por sí mismo, como la prensa de frutas, accesorios de hielo, tablas de cortar y cuchillos.     Usted debe ser capaz de encontrar todo en línea (Amazon es bueno), pero si le gusta ir de compras usted mismo, trate de encontrar una tienda de suministros de Bar profesional porque tienen un equipo de mejor calidad.     Esa es mi última sugerencia.Cuando invierta en estas herramientas y equipos de bar, elija productos de alta calidad.Confía en mí.Trate de evitar comprar un traje de cóctel de $12 y ver más inversión en alrededor de $100.     Si cuidas de estas herramientas, te beneficiarán de por vida.Y el equipo de camarero de alta calidad se ve mejor y se siente mejor cuando se utiliza.     ?Dicho esto, si usted está en problemas de dinero y necesita practicar sus habilidades de bebida, compre un conjunto de herramientas de $12!Cuando usted gana mucho dinero más tarde como camarero, usted siempre puede invertir en equipos de alta calidad.

Publish Date: 2021/08/18

Characteristics of a Good Carrier Media

Description:     Characteristics of a Good Carrier Media     Tom owns a production factory. Every day, the factory produces 10 kg of a certain product. Based on his experience, Tom knows that, on average, one trained worker with correct tools could manage to pack and ship out 1 kg of the product daily. Being a predictive man, Tom considers the probability that one worker might get sick. To be on the safe side, he has 11trained workers instead of 10. This helps him prevent an overcapacity situation in the warehouse in the event that one of them is sick or the factory has to increase its production capacity. With his 11 trained workers and correct tools, Tom’s factory operates smoothly every day without trouble.     Now, let’s compare this with the biological wastewater treatment process. The product is the organic load to be removed by means of wastewater treatment; the trained workers and tools are equivalent to the carrier media and biomass in the wastewater treatment process, respectively. Similar to the workers who cannot pack and ship out the products without tools, the carrier MBBR media cannot remove the organic load from the wastewater without biomass.     If one day Tom’s factory starts producing another product that requires a different packing method, he doesn’t dismiss his 11 workers and hire a new group. Rather, he allows his workers time to become familiar with their new working tools. The same applies to biological wastewater treatment: The biomass that grows on the carrier MBBR bio carrier media will gradually adapt itself to remove a different type of organic load or concentration.     In order for Tom to ensure his factory can run smoothly, he needs both skilled workers and a good set of tools for them to use. The lack of either will slow down the packing speed. For biological wastewater treatment with MBBR, the biomass as well as the carrier media that acts as the housing for the bacteria are very important.     A good MBBR carrier media provides more than just a protected habitat for the bacteria to grow; it also ensures that all bacteria that grow on it are sufficiently supplied with nutrients for their metabolism. During the biological treatment process, the bacteria consume dissolved organic substances. Without sufficient nutrients, the growth of the bacteria is hindered, or worse, the bacteria die off. These phenomena will reduce the removal efficiency and lead to an unqualified wastewater discharge. Hence, a proper selection of the carrier media is essential. This decision will affect both the organic removal performance and the cost required to run the plant.     A good MBBR carrier has the following characteristics:     ? A large protected surface area to maximize the amount of biomass;     ? A porous surface to strengthen the biomass’s adhesion;     ? An optimal substrate diffusion depth to ensure the metabolism;     ? Wear-resistance for durability.     In terms of treatment, a good MBBR carrier aquaculture filter media ensures that all biomass is active to remove the organic substances from the water. From the user’s perspective, a good MBBR carrier media eases the operation and provides a variety of savings, such as in construction and operation.      In a wastewater treatment application, the required amount of MBBR carrier media depends on the organic load that needs to be removed by means of the bacteria’s metabolism, the rate of which is influenced by water temperature and the type of substrate.     Although MBBR carrier media might just be a little piece of plastic (or some other material), its role in wastewater treatment is vital to keep the biomass active in order to deliver the best possible organic removal performance. WW     Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) are used increasingly in closed systems for farming of fish. Scaling, i.e. design of units of increasing size, is an important issue in general bio-reactor design since mixing behaviour will differ between small and large scale. Research is mostly performed on small- scale biofilters and the question is to what extent this can be upscaled to a commercial level. Therefore, the objective of this research was to establish the effect of mixing and scale on MBBR performance. The research was done in two major parts; firstly effects of scale-sensitive factors were studied in small reactors. Secondly, performance of these small reactors was then compared to increasingly large reactor sizes, using the same inlet water quality and biofilm.     Firstly, a 200 L MBBR (medium scale) was operated continuously using a synthetic feed solution. Biofilm carriers from this reactor was used for short-term experiments in 0.8 L reactors (small scale) and compared with the performance of the 200 L medium scale reactor. Reactor geometry and superficial air velocity (m h?1) were identical in these experiments. Subsequently, the small reactors were incubated with biofilm carriers from three commercial farms and performance compared with these large scale reactors. In a number of additional experiments the effect of mixing and Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) was tested at small and medium scale.     The results showed that MBBR scale has a significant effect on TAN removal rate. In general, the larger the scale the better the performance. TAN removal (rTAN) at small scale (0.8 L) is about 80% compared to that at medium scale (200 L). The difference between small scale and large scale (>20 m3) is even higher. These findings warrant further studies on whether a plateau is reached in rTAN at a certain scale; a study which will have considerable importance for optimal design and dimensioning of commercial scale RAS. It was further found that superficial air velocity is not a good scaling factor for MBBRs. Upscaling while maintaining geometry implies increasing air injection depth and therefore increased energy input will be required at a comparable superficial air velocity, which is not incorporated in the superficial air velocity term (m h?1). Superficial air velocity and plastic media filling% were found to have a strong effect on mixing time at small scale. An air velocity below a threshold of 5 m h?1 decreased TAN removal at both small and medium scale. Intense mixing at small scale increased TAN removal at low TAN concentration. However, at a high TAN concentration, the small scale MBBR always performed at not more than 80% of the capacity of the medium scale system, irrespective of the mixing conditions. Hence, the capacity of full scale systems will be under-estimated when based solely on small scale experiments.     Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, culture-independent fluorometric detection method (Bactiquant?) for measuring bacterial activity, the current study explored the relationship between total particle surface area (TSA, derived from the size distribution of particles >5 μm) and bacterial activity in freshwater RAS operated at increasing intensity of recirculation (feed loading from 0.043 to 3.13 kg feed m?3 make-up water). Four independent sets of water samples from different systems were analyzed and compared including samples from: (i) two individual constructed wetlands treating the effluent system water from two commercial, freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms of different recirculation intensity; (ii) an 8.5 m3 pilot scale RAS; and (iii) twelve identical, 1.7 m3 pilot scale RAS assigned one of four micro-screen treatments (no micro-screen, 100, 60, or 20 μm mesh size micro-screens) in triplicate. There was a strong, positive, linear correlation (p 

Publish Date: 2021/08/18

6 Factors to Consider When Buying a Lotion Pump Dispenser

Description:     6 Factors to Consider When Buying a Lotion Pump Dispenser     Lotion pumps are used in a wide variety of liquid products – we’re talking about soaps, body wash, hand creams, and the likes. Products with lotion pump dispensers are more noticeable and preferable by consumers, and why wouldn’t they? Lotion pumps are incredibly convenient to use, plus they last long.     If you are thinking of buying a lotion pump dispenser but doesn’t know how to check which is better and which is not, then you bumped in the right article. We’re going to list down six factors that you have to look at to land on the ideal pump closure for your containers. More than that, we made an additional list of six lotion pumps from YEHPAK that you have to check out. So, let’s go!     See our checklist that you need to weigh in when deciding which variety of lotion pump to buy.     Material Composition     The material composition of the lotion pump will determine the durability of the equipment. Aside from the commonly used polypropylene (PP) plastic, there are quite a lot of varieties you can select from, such as ceramic, steel, and glass materials.     Before you opt for a lotion pump dispenser, you must first evaluate where do you plan to use it. Will it be for personal use? For commercial use? Or for business consumption? If it is for private or household access, then ceramic or steel type would be excellent for aesthetics and longevity. If it is for commercial use, steel is preferable for durability. Last but not least, if it is for business, then plastic and glass type is your best option since they are lightweight and cost-efficient.     Neck Size     It is essential to know what is the precision of the neck size you are looking for. Some variables include 20/410, 20/415, 24/410, and 24/415 – and these sizes can almost match to various bottleneck sizes. Through this, you can create a perfect bottle–dispenser match, while trying your selected pump into different bottles of your product.     Tube Length     You also have to check the tube length. Note that the plastic tube used inside the container can be cut to the ideal size of the chamber. Besides, the diameter of the tube will depend on the thickness of the liquid inside the bottle. So choose wisely.      Pump Dosage     0.5ml,0.12ml, 0.28ml, 1.4ml, and 2.0ml are just some of the popular dosing amount variables. Choosing your airless pump bottles dose will rely on product specifications, expected usage, cost of the product, or bottle capacity.     Color     Since dispensing pumps are typically made of plastic in the manufacturing process, it would be effortless to add color along the process. This can be arranged easily if a client prefers dispensing pump customization in bulk. Frequently, they can also be colored with an aluminum sheath, which gives a compelling look and defines a luxury edge of a particular product.      Price     Every person in business knows that quality is essential, so if you opt for a good quality product, then you better be prepared to pay more. However, if the type of quality is none of your concern, then you can always choose for an economical pump dispenser – as long as it provides its purpose, then you won ’t have a problem.     We have good news! If you are looking for a durable and excellent quality lotion pump, then you have to see YEHPAK’s bestsellers. What’s more, is that they’re offered at reasonable prices. Check them all out!     This white lotion pump has a 24/410 neck size, a discharge rate of 2cc, and a tube length of 90mm. This selection is ideal for liquid soap products and other house cleaning materials for ease of access     This lotion pump is open for product customization, depending on your style and color preference. You can choose from 24/410, 28/400, 28/410, and 28/415 neck sizes. This selection is best used for liquid soap, body wash, and lotions.     This lotion pump is available at 4 neck sizes – 24/410, 28/400, 28/410, and 28/415. You can opt for nail polish remover push pump dispenser customization with a discharge rate of 2cc. Also, you can select metallic colors, which is best for cosmetic items.       This smooth black lotion pump is available in a wide range of neck sizes. You may choose from 20/410, 24/410, 24/415, 28/400, 28/410, and 28/415. Note that the dispenser is accessible for a discharge rate of 2cc – applicable to any bottled items.     Our smooth lotion pump dispenser is available at any color and ready for brand customization. You may select from 24/410, 28/400, 28/410, and 28/415 neck sizes. This selection has a discharge rate of 2cc and can be used for body wash, liquid soap, cleaning agents, cosmetics, and more.     Our nail polish pump dispenser is available in a wide range of neck sizes. You may choose from 20/410, 24/410, 24/415, 28/400, 28/410, and 28/415. Note that the dispenser is accessible for a discharge rate of 2cc, and is best used for body wash, liquid soap, and shampoo packaging     Plastic lotion pumps, one of the most popular dispensing methods for viscous (thick liquid) products in the personal care and beauty industry, come in all shapes and sizes. When used as designed, pumps dispense the right amount of product time after time. But have you ever wondered what goes in a lotion pump to makes it work? While there are hundreds of different designs in the market today, the basic principle is the same, and Packaging Crash Course took apart one of these lotion pumps to give you an overview of these components, and how they contribute to the overall functionality of pumping the product from the bottle to your hand.     Generally speaking, a lotion pump consists of the following components :     Actuator : An actuator, or the pump head, is what the consumer presses down to pump the product out of the container. The actuator is often made of PP plastic and can have many different designs - and often come with a up-lock or down-lock features to prevent accidental output,. This is one of the component designs that can set one pump apart from another when it comes to the exterior design, it is also the part where ergonomics play a role in consumer satisfaction.     Closure : The component that screws the entire assembly onto the neck finish of the bottle. It is identified with the common neck finish destination such as 28-410, 33-400. Often made of PP plastic, it is often designed with a rib side or smooth side surface. In certain cases a shiny metal overshell can be installed to give the lotion pump a high-end, elegant look.     A lotion pump acts much like a air suction device that draws the product from the bottle to the consumer's hand despite the law of gravity telling it do the opposite. When the consumer presses down on the actuator, the piston moves to compress the spring and the upward air pressure draws the ball upwards, along with the product inside, into the dip tube and subsequently the chamber. As the user releases the actuator, the spring returns the piston and actuator into it's up position, and the ball is returned to it's resting position, sealing the chamber and preventing the liquid product from flowing back down into the bottle. This initial cycle is called "priming". When the user presses down on the actuator again, the product that is already in the chamber will be drawn from the chamber, through the stem and actuator, and dispense out of the pump and onto the consumer's hand. If the pump has a bigger chamber (common for high output pumps), it may require additional priming before the product will be dispensed through the actuator.     Lotion Pump Output     The output of a plastic foam pump is often measured in cc (or ml). Commonly in the range of 0.5 to 4cc, with some larger pumps with bigger chambers and longer piston / spring components having output up to 8cc. Many manufacturers have multiple output options for each of their lotion pump offerings, giving the product marketer full control of dosage. For more information about pump output, please see our other Quick Question Monday article here.     To see a catalog list of the lotion pumps that O.Berk has to offer, please feel free to click here. If you have more questions about lotion pumps in general, please don't hesitate to contact us directly here.     Choosing the right fluid dispensing pump for a given application is critical. Whether it’s accuracy and precision or the need to perform for millions of cycles, understanding the most suitable types of pumps available is the first step. This article describes several pumps commonly used for medical manufacturing applications. It examines their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, it discusses how to maximize accuracy by minimizing fluid slip, an important factor in the design of any positive displacement pump. It also looks at the importance of testing the fluid prior to determining what pump is best for the application.     There are essentially two types of drive systems that control fluid delivery using positive displacement. Linear drive systems and rotary drive systems. Positive displacement pumping refers to a pump that retracts in a cavity to generate volume on the suction side and extends into the cavity displacing the fluid on the discharge. This is a constant for each cycle. Both linear and rotary positive displacement pumps provide exceptional accuracy and precision. However, each method has its’ advantages and disadvantages.     Calibration. In a rotary application, the volume of displacement is a factor of the pump angle relative to the motor axis. Once the volume is calibrated, the pump module can be locked into position. The displacement is adjustable so it should be checked to confirm that calibration is still within specification. In a linear application, mechanical calibration is not required. The pump module is set in a static location, and volume is determined by how far the piston retracts in the cavity. There is no mechanical set point to change volume; only software is used to adjust this parameter.     Cycle Time. Rotary pumps can produce faster dispenses because the rotary valving motion and linear displacement motion are performed simultaneously. A single cycle is controlled by one revolution of the motor. Multiple revolutions will produce larger volumes based on the pumps fixed volume. Cycle time and the ability to produce a more constant flow rate (based on pump revolutions) are the rotary pumps’ strengths. The dispense profile of a rotary pump includes pulsations which are due to the sinusoidal waveform. This offers the unique advantage of firing off small volumes of fluid very quickly. An example of a rotary application would be dispensing microliter range dots of fluid onto a substrate passing through a high-speed automation system.     By contrast, a linear pump must retract from the suction port to draw fluid into the chamber valve to the discharge port, and then eject the fluid. In general, larger volumes require more time, depending on pump size. The linear dispense creates a flat dispense profile with no pulsation throughout the entire chamber capacity of the pump module. If more volume or a longer dispense is required, two pumps may be run out of phase so that one pump is discharging while the other is on the intake stroke. An example of a linear application would be dispensing a constant line over a distance, such as a diagnostic reagent, or precisely filling a substrate with slow absorption rates. Continuous web applications are ideal for this tandem approach.

Publish Date: 2021/08/18