Rack and Pinion Steering

Description:     Rack and Pinion Steering     A DRIVER steering a car on a twisting road has two distinct tasks: to match the road curvature, and to keep a proper distance from the lane edges. Both are achieved by turning the steering wheel, but it is not clear which part or parts of the road ahead supply the visual information needed, or how it is used. Current models of the behaviour of real drivers1,2 or 'co-driver' simulators3–5 vary greatly in their implementation of these tasks, but all agree that successful steering requires the driver to monitor the angular deviation of the road from the vehicle's present heading at some 'preview' distance ahead, typically about 1 s into the future. Eye movement recordings generally support this view6–9. Here we have used a simple road simulator, in which only certain parts of the road are displayed, to show that at moderate to high speeds accurate driving requires that both a distant and a near region of the road are visible. The former is used to estimate road curvature and the latter to provide position-in-lane feedback. At lower speeds only the near region is necessary. These results support a two-stage model1 of driver behaviour.     Why do some cars respond so well to the driver? Great handling makes you feel safe and in control – and makes panic swerves and steering corrections as effective as possible. The lightest touch of the wheel should direct the steering system effortlessly and precisely. As well as a well-designed suspension parts, it takes a good quality steering system and steering parts to achieve excellent handling. If you’d like to know the anatomy of a steering system and how it supports handling, road holding and driveability, here is an easy overview.     The function of a steering parts     When you rotate the steering wheel, the car responds. But how does this steering system in cars give you a smooth route forward? A group of parts called the steering system transmits the movement of the steering wheel down the steering shaft to move the wheels left and right – although car wheels don’t turn at the same angle.      The popular rack and pinion steering system      In most cars, small trucks and SUVs on the road today, there is a rack and pinion steering system. This converts the rotational motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion that turns the wheels and guides your path. The system involves a circular gear (the steering pinion) which locks teeth on a bar (the rack). It also transforms big rotations of the steering wheel into small, accurate turns of the wheels, giving a solid and direct feel to the steering.     How does power steering affect the rack and pinion?     It’s likely that if you drive today, you’re used to power steering. Contemporary cars, and especially trucks and utility vehicles have a power steering system function – also called power-assisted steering. This gives that extra energy (either hydraulic or electric) to help turn the wheels and means parking and manoeuvering requires less effort than with simple manual force. The rack and pinion steering system is slightly different with power steering, with an added engine-driven pump or electric motor to aid the steering assembly.     So is ease the only benefit of power steering? The system allows you to have higher gear steering and means you have to turn the steering wheel less to turn the wheels further (less steering wheel turns lock-to-lock). It therefore sharpens up response times and makes the steering even more precise. With such busy roads and traffic jams, this means drivers can more safely manoeuvre in close proximity to other vehicles. Keeping tight control at all speeds, in any conditions and in critical situations, will help to avoid accidents.      What are the components of the steering system in cars?     Whatever a car’s make and model, quality auto steering parts support a flawless drive. Premium rack and pinion parts manufactured by MOOG include axial rods, tie rod ends, drag links, centre arms, steering rack gaiter kits, tie rod assemblies and wheel end bearings.     These steering parts are robust and hard wearing enough to provide both strength and durability. Choosing parts which meet OE manufacturer specifications means the whole assembly will be responsive and long-lasting.     The return of four-wheel steering      Beyond the swivel of the front wheels, some cars have a steering system which affects all four. This has traditionally been exclusive to sporty or luxury models, but there’s a growing trend towards the feature in more affordable cars.     A four-wheel steering control unit sits behind the rear axle of the car and affects the rear wheels as needed. Car wheels turn in opposite directions at low speeds, but at high speeds, turning all four wheels in concert helps to maintain stability and prevent fishtailing.     Stating that automotive literature presents surprisingly little helpful information concerning the faults of the steering-systems used on automotive vehicles and that, in spite of the fact that so many of the faults are self-evident, they frequently are overlooked in actual practice, the author includes with the presentation of his own investigations summaries of the views expressed by numerous well-qualified automotive engineers and discusses these steering-gear faults in some detail. Beginning with the subject of safety, consideration is given successively to the causes of hard steering, the angular position of knuckle-pivots, knuckle-pivot location, the foregather or toe-in of wheels, castering or trailing effect, wheel-wabble, drag-link location, irreversibility, steering-gear type comparisons, tie-rods and tie-rod arms. Numerous drawings illustrative of present-day practice are presented and commented upon, reference being made also to other articles, printed previously, that are pertinent.     Rack and pinion steering systems are not suitable for steering the wheels on rigid front axles, as the axles move in a longitudinal direction during wheel travel as a result of the sliding-block guide. The resulting undesirable relative movement between wheels and steering gear cause unintended steering movements. Therefore only steering gears with a rotational movement are used. The intermediate lever 5 sits on the steering knuckle (Fig. 4.5). The intermediate rod 6 links the steering knuckle and the pitman arm 4. When the wheels are turned to the left, the rod is subject to tension and turns both wheels simultaneously, whereas when they are turned to the right, part 6 is subject to compression. A single tie rod connects the wheels via the steering arm.     Two types of vehicle steering are in general use. The venerable rack-and-pinion system is the simplest and most popular for cars. As the steering wheel is turned, a pinion attached to the base of the steering column moves along a linear-toothed rack to which it is meshed. The arrangement converts the rotary movement of the wheel to a horizontal movement along the transverse axis of the vehicle. The rack is attached at each end to tie rods which transmit the movement to the wheels. This method of steering is positive and provides rapid feedback to the driver. A second steering mechanism, the so-called recirculating-ball system, is used on some heavy trucks and SUVs because of its robustness and greater mechanical advantage. The latter attribute makes turning the wheel easier but, with the advent of power steering, this action is now less of an issue and many heavy vehicles are now adopting rack-and-pinion steering.     Cars with front-wheel drive have much of their weight over the front wheels and therefore it becomes more difficult to turn the steering wheel. This factor, together with the use of wider tyres on SUVs and larger cars, compounds the difficulty to the point that unassisted steering would be almost impossible for many people. Thus most vehicles are today equipped with power steering, a system that is normally operated hydraulically with mineral oil serving as the working medium. A double-acting hydraulic cylinder controls a piston that applies a force to the steering mechanism to augment the effort made by the driver. The pump is operated by a belt-drive off the engine and therefore no assistance is provided unless the engine is switched on. A disadvantage associated with hydraulic power steering is that the pump is constantly running when assistance is not required and this consumes fuel.     An alternative form of power steering is an electrical system in which an electric motor provides assistive torque to the steering mechanism. Sensors detect the position and torque of the steering column and feed the data to a computer that then controls the current to the electric motor. A major advantage of the electrical system is that the degree of assistance can be tailored to the speed of the vehicle, with more assistance at low speeds and less at high speed. Other advantages are: (i) a hydraulic pump, a belt drive and hoses are not required and this leaves more space under the bonnet; (ii) the electrical system is more fuel efficient in that, unlike the hydraulic system, it only uses energy when it is operating.     Some vehicles now have steering on all four wheels. This arrangement was introduced primarily to permit a tighter turning circle and to facilitate parking in a restricted space. It is most useful for truck chassis other parts, heavy goods vehicles and tractors, although it is also available on a few cars. The rear wheels, which cannot turn as far as the front wheels, are controlled by a computer and actuators.     Because thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) behave essentially as conventional thermoplastics, they can be recycled using the same methods. Many TPEs tolerate multiple recycling . The Society of Automotive Engineers has generically classified commercial TPEs to enable their segregation into mutually compatible categories for recycle purposes . In this scheme, TPEs are categorized in the same manner as that used for rigid thermoplastics such as polypropylene and polystyrene.     TPVs are widely used in automotive applications (e.g., weather stripping, rack-and-pinion steering gear bellows, constant velocity joint boots, air master booster door covers, body plugs, interior skins, etc.) and in appliances (disk drive seals, dishwasher sump boot, door seals, and compressor mounts). The used articles and production scrap are simply ground in a granulator, and the granulate is added in relatively high proportions to the virgin material. The TPV granulate is compatible with granulate prepared from TPO. In fact, it was found that the addition of TPV granulate improves the properties of the TPO material . Many automotive manufacturers have started extensive car dismantling programs and are working together with polymer manufacturers to recycle and reuse material, often in “closed-loop” systems, in which the material goes back into the original product .     Other recycling routes for used TPE components are not significantly different from the route for other elastomers, such as incineration with energy recovery. The main benefit of TPEs in this context is that they contain relatively little sulfur, with consequent beneficial effects on incinerator flue gas composition.     Although components made from TPEs can in theory be recycled similar to other thermoplastics, they still suffer from the disadvantage that they are not pure TPEs, but have inserts, or they are composites or blends of materials used in overmolded parts. In the case of the largest class of TPEs, styrenic block copolymers, up to one third of total production is used in inherently nonrecyclable applications, such as oil modifiers, adhesives, or bitumen modification .     A recent development that allows recycling of materials from overmolded and coextruded parts is the use of magnetic separation. Magnetic separation is a well-established technique used for high-volume separation in mining, aggregate, and other industries. It is also widely used to remove metal contaminants from plastics and rubber. To be applied for the separation of polymeric materials from mixtures (e.g., TPE from polypropylene or other rigid plastic), it is required that a magnetic additive be mixed into the TPE material. The amount of this additive is typically 1%. It has been established that the additive does not have an adverse effect on the physical properties of the material or on the overmolding adhesion. In the recycling process, the granulated scrap is placed onto a belt conveyor and the particles of the resin with the magnetic additive are separated at the end of the belt by a roll with imbedded powerful rare-earth magnets. The particles attracted to the roll are collected in a hopper after they fall away from it. A mechanical barrier, or “splitter”, helps to separate the two particle streams .

Publish Date: 2021/08/19

THE FACTS ABOUT PAINT PROTECTION FILM

Description:     THE FACTS ABOUT PAINT PROTECTION FILM     Paint protection film is a modern marvel. It’s a thin but exceptionally durable polymer or polyurethane film that is the ultimate layer of protection. Not only does it keep your ride’s clear coat protected against chemicals, UV exposure, acid rain and road debris, but if the vehicle’s paint is impacted by road debris, it can save you thousands of dollars in autobody repair.     There is a lot of information on the interwebs about car paint protection film. Some of it is accurate, and others are pure, 100 percent, grade A BS. Search up ceramic coating and you’ll get similar misleading information. So, let’s explore the truth about paint protection film.     In this article – we’ll weed through the myths, rumors, and flat our false information out there, to provide a definitive guide about paint protection film. Does it really protect from light scratches? Can PPF actually self-heal?     We’ll also introduce you to Kavaca instant healing paint protection film – the most advanced PPF on the market today. Additionally, we’ll explain why it makes sense to apply a professional grade ceramic coat on top of that PPF – to create the Ultimate Shield of protection. If you’d like to compare PPF vs ceramic coating, we’ve got a great article you can review after reading this one.     In order to fully appreciate the power of paint protection film, it’s important to explore it’s history. Like many of today’s modern achievements, PPF was developed to solve a problem. During the Vietnam War, the United States Department of Defense was having trouble with rotor blades on several of their helicopters being damaged by shrapnel, trees, and other debris.     The folks at 3M were tasked to create a protective layer that was lightweight, yet incredibly strong. The solution was called helicopter tape or a custom urethane film that was designed for function – not style.     Today’s PPF is far cry from 3M’s helicopter tape. It’s thermoplastic urethane that is transparent, can be colored, even custom textured to enhance gloss or matte paint jobs. It is a clear paint protection film that can be purchased in different grades, thickness, and is applied by highly trained professionals with precision accuracy.     There are a lot of coating for cars on the market today. But tpu car paint protection film is arguably the best and most-effective solution. The 3M Corporation is the Godfather of PPF. As explained above, its primary application was to apply a tint to protect lightning-fast spinning helicopter rotor blades from being damaged. Today, more than a dozen different types, brand names, and designs are offered to car enthusiasts.     You’ve probably heard of some of the leading brands including our own Kavaca, 3M Paint Protection Film Pro Series, Llumar, Suntek, and Xpel film. However, it’s commonly misunderstood that the brand of PPF is associated with the type of product.     While sometimes this is the case, the brand is not always related to the material or its proprietary properties. This is one of the myths or misleading PPF truths that can confuse car owners. Some are applied as full wraps while others are partial hood. There are several that offer limited warranties and some that can back up their product with a 10-year warranty.     Arguably the most popular ‘name’ in the paint protection films market is clear bra. This is a dual-purpose term – kind of like calling a soda pop a “ Coke” – or sealable plastic bags “Zip-Lock”. Clear Bra is a brand name for a specific type of protective film. But, it’s also a specific brand as well.     It’s applied to the front end of the vehicle, covering the front bumper, car’s paint, grille, headlights, splitter, and even the front portion of the hood and front fenders. The term “bra” is used to describe the location of the application.     For a PPF to protect, it’s got to be bonded to a surface. This becomes possible when that surface is clean, free of debris, and any damage. However, since a paint protection film is transparent, the condition of the paint or surface underneath makes a huge difference in the brilliance of the finished product.     What is a Decontamination Car Wash? A decontaminating car wash is typically the first step of PPF prep. It involves the use of a wax-stripping car shampoo that acts as a detergent, which breaks down the oils in wax, factory paint sealant, and allows them to be washed away.     If you have a ceramic coating applied to your entire vehicle, the professional detailer that installs clear bra film will simply complete a maintenance car wash. If there are minor scratches due to rock chips – or if you have an older paint job, the auto detailing company might want to repair those issues in the next step.     What is Paint Correction? Once the surface has been cleaned and stripped of initial debris, the installer will inspect the condition of the paint. If it is faded, aged, has spider-webbing or swirl marks, or shows signs of damage, the installer will recommend paint correction to the client.     This involves polishing or using a cutting compound to remove minor scratches or imperfections in the paint. The final result is a perfectly smooth surface that allows the PPF to bond but also allows the brilliance of the finish to shine.     Final Wipe Panel Wipe Down: Using a proprietary blend of chemical agents, the authorized and certified PPF installer will remove any contaminants or excess polishes or oils on the surface.     A professionally prepped and applied automotive paint protection film has an expected longevity of five to 10 years. However, like any other paint protection solution, the durability of the PPF is impacted by several variables.     Having a certified paint protection film installer complete the entire process is another surefire way to extend the lifespan of your PPF. The material and supplies they use is just as crucial.     Most PPF brands, like Ceramic Pro PPF Kavaca partner with the best professional detailers and installers, have advanced training and certification process, to ensure their clients receive the best possible service. Working with the right PPF dealer will reduce air bubbles in the finished product, which makes the PPF look seamless.     Inferior top coat materials are common in cheap products, which leads to yellowing or potential for a stain to occur. It also provides reduced protection against bug acids.     During the recent Circuit Breaker, many car owners were left wondering if they were permitted to wash their cars within HDB compounds. It is evident that we Singaporean drivers really pride ourselves in ensuring our vehicles look good despite not being able to leave our homes.     A common method to give your car a lasting shine with minimal maintenance would be to send it to a car detailer for a good polish. When it comes to car polishing, most drivers would be familiar with the common terms like Ceramic Coating and auto paint protector film (PPF). However, what drivers are unlikely to know is that giving your car a good polish does more for your car than simply enhancing its aesthetic features.     Let’s take a closer look at what each of these applicants does for your car to see if there are more to them than meets the eye.     Something all vehicle owners want is for their ride to look brand new and shiny - like it never left the showroom floor. This can be achieved with Ceramic Coating, a coating that only needs to be applied once, which bonds to the surface of your vehicle’s paint, greatly enhancing its ability to withstand the harsh weather and environmental conditions of Singapore’s roads.     Additionally, Ceramic Coating reduces the effort needed in maintaining your car to look brand new, as it allows for easier cleaning while increasing your vehicle’s shine. Vehicle owners will know the dilemma of finding a minor scratch on their beloved vehicle, yet choose to put up with the ugliness as repairing it will cost a substantial amount. However, you will be pleased to find out that with a good quality Ceramic Coat, minor scratches may be removed with a thorough polish.     Ceramic Coating, however, is not a full-proof solution for your car’s grooming needs as it does not improve your vehicles toughness to withstand more severe injuries like rock chips - very commonly faced by Singaporean drivers as we share the roads with big trucks.     If your goal is to protect your vehicle from scratches and rock chips - something Ceramic Coating is not capable of, then PPF is what you’re looking for. PPF, though costing slightly more than Ceramic Coating, is a military grade film that greatly enhances your vehicle's resistance to foreign objects, something Ceramic Coating is not capable of. Additionally, PPF has self-healing properties that protects your paint from rock chips, contaminants and scratches, as scars will dissipate over time with heat.     PPF sadly reduces your vehicle’s shine however, and should only be applied by a professional as untrained application may potentially damage the body of your vehicle, which will be very costly to remedy. PPF application does not mean lower maintenance effort on the vehicle owner's part, as it is advised that PPF be replaced after a few years of usage.     QMI ToughGuard Paint Protection Singapore     It seems then that vehicle owners will constantly face a dilemma between making their car aesthetically pleasing and actually trying to protect their vehicles… well, you’re wrong!     Quick to identify a solution to this problem back in 1998, QMI ToughGuard Paint Protection Singapore became the only detailer to introduce QMI's marine grade products which utilises Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) technology to our shores.     Now, you may be wondering what PTFE, a chemical compound, is capable of doing for your vehicle. Since PTFE is highly durable, transparent and non-stick, it will result in the body of your vehicle being extremely smooth to the touch. Vehicle owners will additionally be able to say goodbye to rainwater stains as the hydrophobic quality of PTFE makes it a very effective water repellant, causing water droplets to simply flow off the body of your car!     Once QMI's PTFE products are applied, ToughGuard Nano Surface Protection is applied as a final protective layer. This results in the formation of a protective layer over the body of your vehicle that is hard and transparent, creating a hardness that goes beyond the strength of 9H thickness coatings!     QMI ToughGuard clear film auto paint protection Singapore ensures your vehicle has a smooth surface that retains shine and resists environmental contaminants. This allows you to have a fuss-free maintenance regime for your vehicle as all you need to do is to wash your vehicle with water at least once a month and dirt can simply be wiped with a cloth!     With forecasts of heavy downpour over the coming weeks, why not give them a try as your car will still look good despite the unpredictable weather of Singapore!

Publish Date: 2021/08/19

The Effectiveness of Home Water Purification Systems on the Amount of Fluoride in Drinking Water

Description:     The Effectiveness of Home Water Purification Systems on the Amount of Fluoride in Drinking Water     Statement of the Problem     Laboratory ultrapure water purification systems for domestic use have drawn significant attention over the past few years. This can be related to the improvement of public health and concern for water contamination.      Purpose     The aim of this study was to evaluate whether home water purification systems eliminate the essential materials such as fluoride besides filtrating the heavy ions and other unwanted particles out of water.     Materials and Method     In this experimental study, six most frequently used commercial brands of water purifiers were evaluated and compared. Specimens were collected right before and after setting up the device, and 6 months later. Then, spectrophotometry (the Harrison device) was performed to compare fluoride clearance by each home water cleaner device.     Results     Based on the data collected from all water purification devices in different locations, the amount of fluoride was significantly different before and right after using home water purifier and six months later (p= 0.001 and p= 0.00, respectively).     Conclusion     The filtration of water significantly decreased its fluoride concentration. The fluoride content of purified super series iltrapure water system was approximately as much as zero in some cases.     Fluoride is a natural element branched from Fluorine. This element can be found in all sorts of water and soil. Out of every kilogram of outer layer of earth, 0.3 gram is fluoride. Mineral waters have more amount of this element compared to other sources.(1)     About 60 years ago, Grand Rapids in Michigan State was the first city in which fluoride supplement was synthetically added to tap water. In US, adding fluoride to community water supplies of many cities has improved the oral health of millions of American citizens.(2)     Fluoridation of community water supplies is adding a specific amount of fluoride (0.7-1.2 ppm) to water in order to reduce the risk of dental caries. By 2002, almost 170 million Americans were provided with this privilege.(3)     Since most of the systemic fluoride is provided through tap water to population, many policies have been established to add fluoride to community water regarding its benefits for teeth and bones.(4)     In regions and countries that do not have water-fluoridation technology, there are natural supplements as previously mentioned. For example, Iran has many mineral water supplies that contain considerable amounts of fluoride. Amount of fluoride in natural mineral waters depends on weather conditions; the warmer the weather is, the higher the amount of fluoride can be detected. Mineral waters in southern regions that have warmer weather contain more fluoride. In Iran, the highest amount of fluoride has been found in southeast and northeast areas.     Water purification systems for domestic use have drawn much of attention over the past few years. This can be related to improvement of public health and concerns for water contamination. There are several types of home laboratory reverse osmosis water purification systems that can be categorized into 3 different groups(5) as filtered systems, systems using UV irradiation, and ion-exchange systems.     The aim of this study was to find out whether domestic laboratory deionized water purification systems could eliminate the essential materials such as fluoride besides filtrating the heavy ions and other unwanted particles out of water.     Go to:     Materials and Method     In this study, 6 frequently used commercial brands of water purifiers in Ahwaz were compared. The commercial brands evaluated in the current study were CCK (Ceramic and Ceramic/Carbon Cartridges ; RTX-TS DLM filters, Korea), Soft Water (Ceramic Candles; Alpine TJ Series filters, W9332420, USA), Alkusar (Special media cartridges filters; PRB50-IN, USA), Puricom (Special media cartridges filters; Watts 4.5" x 10" Dual Housing, Korea), Water Safe (Granular Carbon Cartridges filters; LCV (Lead, Cysts, VOC's) (Carbon Block Filter Cartridges, Australia), and Aquafresh (Sediment String-Wound; Poly Spun and Pleated Washable Cartridges filters, K5520, USA). The main drinking dura pro series ultrapure water system supply for Ahwaz is provided by governmental companies. After making arrangement with certain companies that supported these brands, the devices were setup in 6 different regions of Ahwaz. Samples were collected before and right after setting up the device. To reduce the errors and elevate the accuracy of the module, 5 samples were taken from each device. Another sample was collected from each single device 6 months later. A total of 64 samples were collected including 32 unfiltered (control) and 32 filtered samples of tap water (experimental) from 6 regions in Ahwaz. Fluoride sampling kits (Spands; EW-99574-08Hach? Test Kits, USA) were used to test the amount of fluoride in sample waters. Samples were all collected in polyethylene sampling containers and were then coded. Spectrophotometry (AvaSpec-ULS2048L- USB2 UARS spectrometer, USA) was performed. In order to measure the characteristics of individual molecules, a mass spectrometer converted them to ions so that they could be moved about and manipulated by external electric and magnetic fields.     Atmospheric pressure was around 760 torr (mm of mercury). The pressure under which ions may be handled is roughly 10-5 to 10-8 torr (less than a billionth of an atmosphere). By varying the strength of the magnetic field, ions of different mass can be focused progressively on a detector fixed at the end of a curved tube and also under a high vacuum.     Latin alphabetic words were used to code each commercial device. Numbers were used for samples obtained before and after setting the device.(6)     The present article gives a review about water purification, filtration techniques and technologies that are practiced till date. Purification of water is mainly focused because of a sensitive reason that it is one of the essential sources of survival for all living beings. Water is found in many forms on the earth’s surface, large amount of drinking water is from lakes and rivers. All living beings need drinking water but human beings need them to be drunk in a purified manner with rich in minerals and salts. Pure water refers to absence of bacteria and disease causing microorganisms, dissolved metal ions and heavy impurities. To gain the whole usefulness of drinking water, it should be not only pure but also healthy. Healthy water refers to presence of nutrients such as minerals and salts that are required to the human body for functioning of body organs like heart, kidneys and blood circulation freely throughout the body. All the technologies had tried to make water pure but not healthy. This makes a lot of difference in life cycle before and after drinking only pure water for a longer period. Some technologies for purification of water chose harmful polymers and dreadful chemical compositions. The then technologies updated and entered into the nanotechnology and polymers for water purification and filtration. Reverse Osmosis is base for any purification process that uses semi permeable membrane which contains ultra, micro and nano porous membranes which removes bacteria and microbes as well as minerals and salts. This RO processed water may cause illness on consuming for a long time continuously. Hence some fiber composites and mineral cartridges were introduced to overcome to add minerals and salts to water. All these techniques adopted for purification of water and usage of fiber composites, polymer membranes are reviewed in this article with defects in them that might cause a lot of damage to mankind.

Publish Date: 2021/08/19

Ways to use stone in interior design and decoration

Description:     Ways to use stone in interior design and decoration     Natural stone lends a sense of inimitable elegance and a unique texture to all interior spaces. Granite, travertine, slate or marble are commonly used for all types of interior design projects. We tell you 5 ways to use natural stone in home decoration:     Stone’s thermal inertia helps maintain constant temperatures in the home’s interior, promoting thermal comfort and energy savings. Environmentally sustainable, this product does not contain any chemical and can be safely used for indoors. Stone is completely recyclable, reducing any adverse impact on the ecosystem, and can even be reused in new projects.      Granite, marble, travertine, quartzite, slate and limestone are resistant and durable products used for flooring. They can create a welcoming atmosphere in home decoration.     You can mix colours and textures for getting an interesting look. Their hardness and durability enables the creation of resistant floors in bathrooms, kitchens, bedrooms or living-rooms.     Natural stone like slate slate or sandstone can be used as wall cladding solutions. It adds more texture and a fresh appeal to interior walls.     You can create interior divisions using stone cladding in the living room and the kitchen. Or you can add a touch of texture by cladding walls with different types of natural stone. Even you can renovate your kitchen walls.     Fireplaces clad in natural artificial stone are functional and easy to maintain. They add value to any interior design project. You can use our DECOPANEL?, a panel composed by natural stone with a slab format, which provides the ideal lightness to decorate interior fireplaces. It has an unparalleled high thermal resistance, so it perfectly withstands heat from chimneys and stoves without showing any damage (no direct contact with fire).     Check out this post about Natural stone fireplaces: how to choose the right one.     Granite and quartzite are the best natural stones for kitchen countertops and backsplashes. They are hard, non-porous, durable and can be cleaned easily. You have many aesthetic possibilities, colors and finishes to choose.      Have a look at this article about how to choose natural stone for kitchen countertops.     Natural stone can be used to create decorative items such as sculptures, lamps or coffee terrazzo table. They are perfect accessories for decoration, helping you apply the finishing touches to every room in your home.      For further informations, visit CUPA STONE website.     Stone is one of the most popular building materials to have ever existed. It has seen implementation within architecture and design ever since the early days of the industries themselves. Ever since the stone age, this material has been king.     And even if the stone was overshadowed in popularity by newer, shinier materials, this material giant is going nowhere any time soon.     Stone has seen a lot of infrastructural implementation over its long history, but in more recent times, it is reserved for a myriad of decoration purposes.     There is just something special about the brute honesty and simplicity of stone. That's what kept it in the limelight for centuries. The fact that it ’s dirt cheap, beautiful, and ample in supply also helps its popularity.     As mentioned above, ever since we've started using materials for the design and build of things, we've used stone. So, perhaps we can say that stones' popularity as a building material and design material stems from the start of humanity itself.     It was most famous as a building material in the medieval ages, where fortresses were constructed out of it.     It has remained a popular decoration material for quite some time after that. It’s still one of the most popular articles.     Stone never went anywhere – it's always been a popular choice as a material. The purpose that it served has changed drastically over the years and continues to evolve to this day.     While we are no longer constructing our houses out of stone, we're decorating them with numerous different stone ornamentation and decorations. Rock is appealing due to multiple various reasons.     There are many different kinds of stone. There are many stones if we can say so. Each stone has its very own unique properties and qualities, which can all be boiled down to its practicality.     Not all rocks are priced the same, as you can get a common rock for free, but a diamond might set you back by quite a lot.     But this is where the beauty of stone comes in. It's simplicity, it's honesty, and its sheer variety gives it a special place in our material realm.     Now that we have established why stone is one of the most important materials out there, it's time to get into the implementation of it.     While we don't want to go about building stone houses, building and designing parts of your home out of stone can has its benefits.     It can be cost-effective, depending on the type of stone furniture, and it can make for some of the most beautiful designs in the world.     We've all visited a bar or two back in the day. While wooden bars are most prevalent in modern society, they are no match for the simplicity and elegance that stone bars bring to the "table."     Bars are an essential part of every household as well and make for some dashing kitchen additions.     Every kitchen needs a proper workspace, and bars make a fantastic compromise. You can't only expect this versatile kitchen addition to serving a singular purpose, can you?     Of course, you can't. Bars are universally useful, whether you're looking for additional cooking space or somewhere to have a couple of drinks at. Bars are best topped with granite or marble. Still, people have made some thrilling limestone-epoxy combinations that are to die for.     While stone is known for its gorgeous properties, it is also far superior in wood as a bar top design. While wood is subject to cracking, inadequate maintenance, discoloration, and cleaning issues – stone isn't.     Stone, in general, is a solid material that is easy to clean, maintain, and won't change color in any way, shape, or form.     If you're a little bit tight on the funds but still wish to have a beautiful stone bar in your kitchen, there is no need to worry. Faux-stone or stone foil can be purchased for quite a low price at your local design store or ordered through Amazon.     While it does give the illusion of real stone, it's far inferior when it comes to function, so remember to be careful!     It's best left to the architectural experts who are designing your home, as stone can be quite heavy and provide some infrastructural issues if mishandled. That's why stone has been less popular as a form of wall decoration.     But every problem comes with a solution, and the answer to the weight issue might be a little bit more creative than you think.     People have invented molds that are applied to a thin level of concrete, which is covering your wall, imitating stone perfectly.     Concrete is stone-hard and is a great wall material. Molding it into stones, polishing it, and painting it to look like the real thing will give it that new shine that nothing else can achieve.     Concrete is also insanely cheap, and the whole process is low-budget in nature.     If you're looking for something perhaps even cheaper than real stone imitation, you might be interested in 3D stone plastic stickers.     Not tacky at all if you ask us, these stickers are virtually stuck to your wall and imitate stone perfectly. Just don't expect them to be as resilient as stone, as these stickers are quite fragile.     If you're looking for yet another wall decoration opportunity while utilizing stone, you're going to love the idea that has been around all of 2019. Stone shelves!     Stone is not traditionally a shelf material, as the stone is pretty heavy. But, topping off your wooden shelves with stone slabs is not only trendy, but adds visuals, functionality, durability, and sturdiness!     You can't imagine a bathroom without a porcelain toilet or sink, but why stop there? Tiles have been out of fashion for quite some time now, and that is because they're quite dull.     Concrete is really in right now, due to the resurgence of the Brutalist movement.     That's why concrete has found its way into your bathroom. Concrete sinks are not only really simple-looking but are also very beautiful and durable.     While we don't recommend flooring your bathroom with concrete, perhaps a big, beautiful artificial marble slab might be more in your taste. Incorporating stone into your bathroom doesn't only have some exceptional aesthetic value, but some great functionality as well.     Stone is not only a durable, sturdy, and beautiful material – it’s also one of the best natural insulators. If you're looking to keep your bathroom heat-insulated, stone is the way to go.     Stone is also great at retaining heat, which will keep your bathroom warm a lot longer than thin tiles.     Porcelain or god forbid, metal bathtubs have also been out of fashion for quite some time. The latest hit in the design world is stone cut bathtubs.     While these might be one of the most expensive tubs out there, they are a great marriage of functionality and beauty.     While we've mentioned stone floors in our previous addition to this list, the potential really doesn't stop in your bathroom.     While there are molds for your walls that turn concrete into the gorgeous aritificial stone decoration design, there are molds for quite a lot of other things as well.     One of these molds is stone molds for your backyard. Why would you spend a ton of money on bricks to make a walkway to your house if you could just mold one out of stone?     If you don't fancy faking stone and are looking to make a gorgeous walkway, you can use real stones.     Now, you don't want to use an expensive stone such as marble or granite for your walkway, but you can utilize common stones. Common stone walkways give out a comfortable rustic vibe that is sure to persist over the ages.     Stone walkways have been present in our history for quite some time, and are incredibly persistent and durable. They're also dirt cheap to construct.     If you're looking for a little bit more finesse in your stone walkway, you can enhance it with some thrilling brickwork or some strategically placed plants.     There is no reason to stop at walkways either, as you can include as much stone into your backyard as you want. Stone walls, stone summer houses, and even stone pool ornamentation.     Stone is very easy to incorporate into any enviro     Stone has been a cornerstone of the universal design and architecture industry and shows no sign of stopping anytime soon. Even if the stone is such a popular material, it seems to be keeping up with the times.     It has found new life in the interior design world through adaptation and aesthetic value alone.     Humans have been making man-made stone for quite some time now, and we're aching to see what the next big hit is going to be. Who knows what the future holds for this solid material.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/19

How Three Revolutionary Fabrics Are Greening the Industry

Description:     How Three Revolutionary Fabrics Are Greening the Industry     If the holiday sales are tempting you to refresh your wardrobe, consider the environmental footprint of buying a new jacket and throwing away your old one. Today, about 80 billion new pieces of clothing are made each year—400 percent more than 20 years ago, while the world’s population only grew about 30 percent. That growth has a huge environmental cost. The Danish Fashion Institute named fashion “one of the most resource-intensive industries in the world, both in terms of natural resources and human resources.” Designer Eileen Fisher has called it “the second largest polluter in the world… second only to the oil industry,” and while that fact has been disputed, a 2010 research paper found that the industry is responsible for almost 10 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.     Moreover, once clothes have been made and worn for a short while, they’re thrown away. A new report from the Ellen MacArthur Foundation found that cumulatively around the world a truckload of clothes gets dumped every second. The average American tosses about 82 pounds of textiles a year, much of which ends up in landfills or incinerated. Of the clothing that reaches second-hand stores like Goodwill—only 15 percent of all discards—some is recycled into shoddy (filling for cheap furniture) or upcycled into things like denim insulation, but most of it is shipped to poorer countries. However, they too have limits—African countries including South Africa and Nigeria recently banned Western castoffs, which have overwhelmed their markets, causing the decline of their local fashion business.     Replacing Old stock fabrics With New Biopolymers     Two types of textiles—petroleum-made polyester and field-grown cotton, often woven together—have been the fashion industry’s darlings for decades. “Much of is a blend of PET, a petroleum-based fiber, and cotton fiber,” says Ramani Narayan, a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at Michigan State University. But these hipora fabric have their issues. Cotton, which makes over 30 percent of our clothes’ yarns, is a natural material, but it’s a thirsty crop that siphons 3 percent of the fresh water, and accounts for almost 20 percent of pesticides and 25 percent of the insecticides used in agriculture worldwide, before it’s even picked. Processing cotton—knitting, weaving, and dyeing—also takes water and energy, yielding more pollution. The production of polyester, the demand for which has doubled in the last 15 years, is an energy intensive process that requires a lot of oil and generates harmful emissions, including volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and acid gases, like hydrogen chloride, all of which contribute to respiratory disease. “Adding PET to a textile gives you better performance—it makes taffeta fabrics more moisture-resistant and gives them more washability,” says Narayan, but these textiles don’t break down naturally, and instead fill up our landfills and oceans. Polyester threads discarded from washing machines have recently been found in fish, including some species we eat. Unless PET threads are decoupled from cotton and recycled, they don’t decompose, but separating fibers is very difficult.     That’s where biopolymers come in.  Biopolymers are macromolecules—long chains of smaller molecular units strung together.  These basic units can be amino acids, nucleotides, and monosaccharaides. The most common biopolymer is cellulose, which makes up one third of all plant material on earth. Cotton is 90 percent cellulose, but there are other, less polluting alternatives.     Biopolymers can be grown or harvested from other plants like kelp or from living organisms like bacteria or yeast, which produce biopolymers as part of their lifecycle. The resulting fibers can be woven into a variety of textiles akin to polyester, leather, or a cellulose-like yarn. To a certain extent, these materials can sequester carbon from the atmosphere, acting as wearable carbon sinks. And when they’re thrown away, these biopolymers will decompose. Just as a cotton t-shirt will break down in a compost heap after a few years, so will any biopolymer-based textile.     “Obviously it’s better to use plants and biomass to make products,” says Narayan, “because then the plants fix the carbon and when you make a product from that you have removed carbon dioxide from the environment.” Using biopolymers in clothing can reduce energy and freshwater use and may help mitigate climate change resources. Plus, as the following examples show, some biopolymers can take the creativity of fashion design process in a whole new direction.     Seining Sweaters from the Sea     AlgiKnit uses kelp, a type of seaweed, to produce a biopolymer called alginate, which is then used for textile production. Kelp grows all over the world, forming offshore kelp forests. Some kelp species grow quicker than the fastest-growing terrestrial plant, bamboo, and are inexpensive to farm. As it sprouts, kelp cleans water too—absorbing phosphorous, nitrogen, and five times more carbon dioxide than land plants—so farming it near seaside cities can improve polluted local waters. Like any plant, kelp absorbs carbon to grow, so when used in durable materials, it is also a carbon sink.     AlgiKnit extracts alginate from kelp by adding certain salts to the seaweed base. After the so-called “salt bath” pulls the alginate from the kelp’s cell walls, the biopolymer is extracted from the seaweed residue, dried into a powder and fused into a yarn that can be turned into a variety of stretch fabric types. “The process is similar to that of synthetic materials, where one long continuous strand is produced,” says Tessa Callaghan, the co-founder of AlgiKnit. “The filament can be plied and twisted to increase strength, or cut into short fibers for other purposes.” AlgiKnit won National Geographic’s Chasing Genius Competition for developing this technology.     The team’s big challenge has been to get their end fiber to be strong and flexible enough for use on an industrial knitting machine. It took a lot of experimentation to ensure compatibility between yarns and machines, but one of the team’s goals is to be able to use the yarn in the existing fiber and textile infrastructure, to streamline the new material’s acceptance, Callaghan says.     Modern Meadow’s yeast-produced collagen is another biopolymer that is about to make its runway debut in a form of a leather product named Zoa. The New Jersey-based company designs DNA that can yield collagen, the protein that makes up leather. These specially constructed DNA strands are inserted into the yeast cells. As the yeast cells grow and multiply, they produce collagen and other proteins essential in forming leather, which then cluster together to make a triple-helix collagen molecule. The resulting molecules form bundles that are “cooked” in Modern Meadow’s “secret sauce,” resulting in a leather-like material. “We design DNA that can make collagen, the main building block of leather, then we purify it, and then use an assembly process to turn it into leather,” says Susan Schofer, vice president of business development at Modern Meadow.     Compared to traditional leather industries, Zoa’s production has a lower environmental impact and more fashion design opportunities. To turn a piece of animal hide into bags, shoes, or pants, it must undergo chemical and physical treatments to remove fats, hair, and other impurities. That processing is ecologically and medically fraught—most leather tanning is done in countries with few or unenforced environmental laws because the effluent from the process contains fish-killing sulfides, carcinogenic chromium, and chlorinated phenols that are linked to bladder and nasal cancers in tannery workers.     Using yeast to grow collagen eliminates the animal part of the equation—including slaughter and subsequent hide processing. It yields higher quality materials—perfectly shaped hides without branding marks or scars, and yields very large spans of leather, much bigger than a cow’s body. It also offers nearly endless creative design ideas. The new collagen can be sprayed on top of another minimatt fabric to create never-before-seen leather fashions, like the t-shirt that is currently on display at the Museum of Modern Art in New York as part of its Items: Is Fashion Modern? exhibit. This material can also be embossed or textured in ways that cow or pig leather just can’t.     Modern Meadow will be introducing Zoa to market in 2018. The production facilities are already available from related industries such as biofuels. “We use 200,000 or 500,000-liter fermentation tanks ,” says Schofer, “So the infrastructure already exists around the globe to take this from lab to commercial levels.”    

Publish Date: 2021/08/19

A basic guide to strapping tools and industrial packaging machinery

Description:     A basic guide to strapping tools and industrial packaging machinery     Strapping Bands or Strapping Belts are used to bundle (or band) items together as one unit, to strap an item to a transporting structure such as a pallet. Strapping also known as bundling and banding, is the process of applying a strap to an item to combine, hold, reinforce, or fasten it. Strapping cargo prevents movement and slipping of products. When handlers are unloading the goods, the products will not fall out, reducing the risk of workplace injury. Place Dunnage Airbags to fill gaps in between cargo units to prevent movement during transportation. Lashing Bands can also be used to hold cargo units together on the container.     To maximise efficiency, use a tensioner to secure the Strapping Band, Stream Peak provides high-quality, durable, and robust Tensioners (strapping tools for PP PET strapping) for different cargo loads. We provide Manual Tensioner, Battery Operated Tensioner, Pneumatic Strapping Tensioner, and Ratchet Tensioner.     We provide Strapping Band Dispensers, which allow a smooth and hassle-free release of strapping bands to prevent tangling. They come with a moveable handle, which enables easy adjustments and oscillations. Finest steel or plastic construction offers extra strength, resilience, and durability. These dispensers can be used for dispensing steel or plastic strapping with ease.     The strapping and industrial packaging industries can be challenging to get your head around if you haven’t had any exposure to them, or their products, before. Are you feeling overwhelmed about the components that are used with the manual tools as well as the high-tech automatic machines?     Let’s get back to basics and break down everything you need to know about strapping products. With this information, you’ll be able to make the right choice for your business.     The first step is to consider if you need to implement them in your business or not. Small businesses that need strapping for carton, crates, or pallets less than 15 times a month will find a manually operated tool is sufficient for their needs. If you need to perform this task every day, you’ll benefit from investing in a strapping machine. You’ll find it will boost your productivity because it will save your team time.     You should also look at your team’s capacity. Automated machines could free up your staff to focus on other areas that need attention. This could improve productivity, motivation, and quality control. Most important is protecting your product. A simple investment in a strapping tool could drastically reduce the damage your items experience in transit. Damaged boxes or pallets can be an overhead that affects your bottom line and your brand’s reputation. More suppliers may be willing to work with you if they know your packaging arrives safe, secure, and undamaged.     Perform an audit on your loads. If you work with smaller cartons, a table or arch strapper is the right product for your business. Large crates and pallets can be strapped manually unless you’re working with large volumes. In this case, you should investigate horizontal or vertical pallet strappers.     The type of materials you need to secure will also inform your choice in a strapping hand held strapping tool. For example, industries that trade in the print media area will require specialized machines to use on palletized loads.     Another thing you need to explore is the strapping that you will be used to secure your products. They will affect the tools you use and the method you apply them. Polypropylene is inexpensive and can be used for many applications. It is usually secured using a buckle and tensioner system, metal crimping seal or can be friction welded. A tensioner tool can be used to achieve the correct tension. Steel strapping can be secured with metal crimping seals using a device that crimps the strap.     So, what types of tools will you need? Let’s look at the options:     Combination tools     This tool combines a tensioner, sealer, and cutter in a single device.     How it works: Once the strap is locked, tensioned, and sealed, the combination tool crimps the seal and cuts the strap from the spool.     Suitable for: Straps up to 19mm wide.     Safety cutter     This tool is used on plastic strapping. Steel straps need specific tools. They are like metal cutting shears or bolt croppers and may come with rubber pads on the side of the blades.     Friction weld tool     This is a combination tool. It can be used with polypropylene and oriented polyester strapping.     There’s a wide range of both manual tools and automatic machines that are used in the strapping industry. If you’re new to the market, it can be challenging to choose what’s best for your business. Read on as we take you through everything you know to make your selection process easier.     What you need to know about strapping tools for cord strapping and machinery     March 20, 2020 by Guest Post     Click here to get this post in PDF     What you need to know about strapping tools and machinery     There’s a wide range of both manual tools and automatic machines that are used in the strapping industry. If you’re new to the market, it can be challenging to choose what’s best for your business. Read on as we take you through everything you know to make your selection process easier.     FREQUENCY     How often you need to strap a carton, crate or pallet will help you make the decision. Unless you need to perform these tasks reasonably regularly, a manually operated tool will be sufficient for your business. You could even settle on a standard set of tools. But, once your frequency for packaging increases, it will be worth your while to invest in a commercial-grade strapping tool or machine. The increased productivity will pay off the overheads pretty quickly.     SIZE     If you are packaging relatively small cartons, you will be able to use a table strapper. The packages can be loaded with ease onto a table strapper, where they can then be fed through the arch of the strapper. Pallets or larger crates only have the option of being manually strapped unless they are being strapped in large numbers.     METHOD     The tools you need to use to secure strapping, and the method you use will also be determined by the strapping you plan to use.     What you need to know about strapping tools for steel strapping and machinery     March 20, 2020 by Guest Post     Click here to get this post in PDF     What you need to know about strapping machine     There’s a wide range of both manual tools and automatic machines that are used in the strapping industry. If you’re new to the market, it can be challenging to choose what’s best for your business. Read on as we take you through everything you know to make your selection process easier.     FREQUENCY     How often you need to strap a carton, crate or pallet will help you make the decision. Unless you need to perform these tasks reasonably regularly, a manually operated tool will be sufficient for your business. You could even settle on a standard set of tools. But, once your frequency for packaging increases, it will be worth your while to invest in a commercial-grade strapping tool or machine. The increased productivity will pay off the overheads pretty quickly.     SIZE     If you are packaging relatively small cartons, you will be able to use a table strapper. The packages can be loaded with ease onto a table strapper, where they can then be fed through the arch of the strapper. Pallets or larger crates only have the option of being manually strapped unless they are being strapped in large numbers.     METHOD     The tools you need to use to secure strapping, and the method you use will also be determined by the strapping you plan to use.     Follow these tips when choosing the right tools for the strap:     First, consider polyester cord strapping. It is the easiest to work with and comes in various forms, including woven strapping, composite, and hotmelt. It is secured with a metal buckle or a plastic one.     You’ll only need a tensioner as the buckles lock onto the strap preventing it from loosening.     The strap will be easy to cut using a sharp knife or cutter.     If you want to tension the strap again because the load has shifted, you’ll be able to do so using the buckle system.      Another option is polypropylene. It’s a popular choice because it is versatile and cost-effective.  You can use it with both buckles and tensioners, or it can be secured with a metal crimping seal. Friction welding is also an option. Oriented polyester, which looks similar, can also be fr     If you opt for steel strapping you’ll need to use metal crimping seals to secure a package. There are further choices you can explore, such as using a tool to crimp the strap that allows it to form a firm grip.     If you choose to go with a separate tensioner and sealer, you’ll find there are certain advantages, such as a low individual weight. Using separate tools also gives you more choice because it can be used on a vertical surface. Some can also be fitted with attachments so they can secure odd-shaped packages. They are versatile so you can adjust notch strength to increase the strength of the seal, for example.     A combination tool can tension, seal and cut. Once it locks and tensions the strap, it then applies the seal manually. It is a tensioner, sealer, and cutter that is combined in a singular tool. The strap is locked and tensioned. Then the seal is applied manually. The tool crimps the seal and will then cut the strap. They are limited to straps up to 19mm wide. If you need to work with wider straps, you’ll to use separate tools.     When it comes to strapping cutters a safety cutter is sufficient for plastic strapping. Steel straps need specialised tools. Thinner grades of the strap will require similar shears, but you’ll need to use stronger tools for heavier grades.     Friction weld tools are another type of combination tool. They can be used with polypropylene, but you also have the choice of using oriented polyester strapping. The bonus is that they lead to shorter strapping cycle times and regular strap tensions. It’s suitable for high volume strapping of crates or pallet loads.     Table strappers are useful for those faced with medium volumes of carton strapping and bundling. They work with polypropylene strap sand friction weld sealing. The process is fast and leads to consistent strapping. They are usually mobile, so can be stored and only brought out when needed, which is a space-saver on the floor. Side action strappers can be mounted on the side of the table instead of under it so it can be used in wet or dirty conditions. The types of items you are packaging, and the conditions of your warehouse will determine which of these is most appropriate for you to use.     Arch strappers are suitable when you need to strap high volumes of cartons continuously. Some models are used with receiving conveyers.      Pallet strappers are time savers if you’re working with high volumes.

Publish Date: 2021/08/19

IMPORTANCE OF FIRE HOSE SIZE

Description:     IMPORTANCE OF FIRE HOSE SIZE     When arriving on the scene of a fire, emergency crews have to make quick, on-the-spot decisions for approaching the situation. Arguably, one of the most crucial determinations that needs to be made is which hose lines are best suited for the circumstances. Fire severity, type of property, amount of required hose, and suppression tactics are all factors that influence what size and type of hose should be used. Choose correctly; the blaze has a better chance of being contained. Get it wrong; the situation can take a turn for the worse. Two essential hoses operated by firefighters are attack and supply hoses. In this article, the BullDog Hose team highlights why hose size matters when approaching a fire.      Attack Lines     Attack hoses, such as BullDog’s Hi-Combat II?, Firepower II?, Ultima?, and Fireguard?, are designed to tackle fires in their beginning stages and offer flexible approaches to different types of fires. The most common attack line sizes that fire departments deploy are 1.75 inches and 2.5 inches. Both sizes have pros and cons, depending on the situation at hand. Deciding to work with one format over the other can dictate the effectiveness of the initial suppression efforts. Smaller diameter hoses require much higher pressure to move lower volumes of water.     When working with the 1.75-inch hose, it is most useful for taking on residential and vehicle fires. This hose size is much lighter and more maneuverable than the 2.5-inch line. A more compact design makes it easier for firefighters to move the line through hallways, stairwells, and small rooms. Generally, this hose can be operated by two to three firefighters and can deliver water around 140 to 200 gallons per minute (gpm). So this is the desired hose to utilize when suppressing smaller fires. Being relatively easier to manage, 1.75-inch hoses tend to be a ‘catch-all’ when first responding to a fire. If attempting to tackle larger blazes, the 2.5-inch attack hose should be fielded.      A 2.5-inch hose line is the best choice when responding to more significant commercial buildings and exterior fires. With the ability to deliver high volumes of water at 200 to 300 gpm, this hose can take on more of the fire load than the smaller 1.75-inch attack line. The 2.5-inch hose can be more challenging to control in smaller spaces and is commonly handled by three to four firefighters.      Supply Lines     Keeping the attack lines charged and operating at their best efficiency all depends on the supply hoses. These hoses, like BullDog’s Hi-Vol? and Hi-Vol TPU?, can be found in sizes ranging from 3 to 6 inches in diameter. The bigger supply lines move high volumes of water from hydrants and fire engines to the attack lines. With the larger diameter, supply hoses can carry more water at lower pressures. Relocating supply lines can be difficult once the water begins flowing.      Fire fighting is one of the professions that keeps our nation thriving. But, fire departments around America have to select the best hoses every year. Budgets might change and the seasons grow warmer, but safety is of utmost importance. However, not every fire hose works the same due to the fires they have to fight. So, let’s learn about the big differences between municipal and industrial fire hoses.      Municipal Fire Hoses     Municipal Fire Hoses are designed for fire fighting that requires kink resistance and critical water flow. Being lightweight is key, as these hoses often have to deal with shifting terrain and various on-the-job changes. While older and more standard municipal fire hoses are maximized for normal wear and tear, what about the specialty hoses?     There are a variety of municipal fire hoses on the market to solve any problem your fire department or town might be facing. Need hoses to be more cost conscious, solutions are available. What about municipal hoses needed to reach high rise or raised angle structures? There are fire hoses for that as well.     Pumping to high-rise buildings in cities vs. rural settings is also a concern faced by these same municipal fire hoses. Depending on the structures you protect, you will need to consult with your hose supplier to find out which one works the best for you.      Industrial Fire Hoses     Industrial Fire Hoses pack a little more punch than the typical municipal fire hose. They feature far superior heat and abrasion resistance. Plus, they tend to be able to support issues concerning oil, fuel and chemicals far greater than the typical municipal fire hose. The industrial fire hoses tend to be flexible and lightweight as well.      These fire hoses also tend to be optimized to be maintenance free. While that doesn’t mean you won’t have to take care of industrial fire hoses, it means maintenance demands will be fewer. The practical uses of the industrial fire hoses remain the same in theory. You’re going to transfer liquid, washdown areas and generally solve problems.     However, municipal fire fighting hose belong to the typical mental image you have day-to-day fire fighting. Meanwhile, industrial fire hoses are used on air strips, military bases, heavy industrial factories and related business areas.      What kind of fire fighting hose are you going to need?     As time marches on deeper into the year and your budget deadline grows close, you will have to address your fire fighting needs. No one wants to be the person that reaches for a fire hose only not have it be suited for the purpose at hand. Whether you’re outfitting your local rural fire department or keeping an auto plant safe, you must know the differences between municipal and industrial fire hoses.      Is there really a best fire fighting hose?     Well, it depends on the environment and overall purpose. Industrial forestry fire hose can fight all sorts of fires started by various things, but they do this in fixed environments.     Municipal fire hoses save towns money. They also are ready to suction water out of unusual water resources. Then, there is the method of actual dispersing the fire.     A municipal fire hose extinguishes a fire with limited structural damage and loss of life. The industrial fire fighting hose keeps fire from accelerating. Stopping the acceleration means it doesn’t spread to other structures that might combust in a short amount of time. The power in an industrial fire hose will keep a plane from exploding, but it also can punch holes in an unstable wall during a house fire.      In the end, the best fire hose is determined by the purpose and the individual. Keep reading and visiting Bulldog Hose to learn more about the world of fire fighting hose.      Fire hoses are constantly in demand in our ever-changing world. But, if you’re trying to meet a municipal budget, where do you turn? Your friends at BullDog Hose have been helping fire departments around the US and Canada discover their perfect work balance. Finding the needs to meet safety with the durable hoses that would break a fire department’s budget.     Big Hoses that don’t break the bank     When people think of fire hoses, their background changes their opinion of them. Older veteran firefighters remember the thick monstrous hoses of the 1970s that made high-rises difficult to navigate. While most fire houses have gotten rid of those bulky behemoths, what are they doing in 2021?     The answer is simple for many fire fighters and fire departments around the US and Canada. They’re struggling with big hoses from a bygone era that aren ’t getting the job done. Couplings are worn or a little off. If that wasn’t enough, the same fire fighters are having to keep up with changing fire fighting standards.     What is the right size hose for fire fighting and attack?     Fire fighting and fire attack have several unique demands. First, they have to be able to be used and save lives. Second, the fire fighting hose costs can’t break the Department’s budget. Finally, they have to be perfectly adapted to fit and attack fires in the most accurate way.     The idea of big fire needs big water is traditionally heard in fire fighting. That has lead to the majority of fire departments purchasing larger hoses ala something with a 2 1/2 inch handline. While this standard was applied for years without any consideration towards fire fighting needs, the National Fire Academy found a formula to help you pick the best hose.     Length x Width / 3  x Rate of Involvement     So, let’s say you have a 25 foot length of hose and the width of a building is 40 feet that is 25% on fire.     25 x 40 = 1,000 square feet     1,000 divided by 3 is 333.3     333 x .25 = 83.25 gallons per minute.     The benefits of knowing the right size suction hose formula     The NFA formula allows fire departments to measure and understand what they need on the fly. While this is helpful for online and in-person shopping, these modern mathematic applications help your Fire Department save money. Times are tough and budgets aren’t what they used to be, but every municipality and bigger city needs fire fighting materials.     BullDog Hose has Fire Hoses for Sale     At BullDog Hose, we have many fire hoses for sale. But, which is best for you? While we’ve discussed the need to keep an eye for the best fit, provided a formula to figure out your needs and guided you in your journey…what’s next?     Examine our Top 5 hoses for Fire Departments     Attack Fire Hoses     Hi-Combat II     Supply Line Fire Hoses     Hi-Vol     General Fire Hoses     While browsing the marine hose for Sale, don’t forget to look at the Fireguards     Fireguards are a very aggressive fire hose meant for interior attack. Too often, we see Fire Departments only concentrating on their immediate needs for external fires. The special weave and flexibility of the Fire Guard aids transport and helps for specialized fire fighting. During the summer, public fire fighting statements have shown that that fireguards can assist with waterside related fire needs.     Don’t forget to check out the fire nozzles. Do you need a fog nozzle or a smoothbore nozzle?     Smoothbore nozzles have an open path from coupling to nozzle tip. If you want to create different kinds of streaming patterns, you’re going to want a fog nozzle. The traditional firefighter will find what they need with a smoothbore nozzle. However, there is an added benefit to having the ability to apply different kinds of pressure depending on what a situation needs.     You have a choice in purchasing municipal fire hose, make sure you pick the best with BullDog Hose.          

Publish Date: 2021/08/19