What is Diamond Quarry and Concrete Wire Sawing

Description:     For bench cutting in marble quarries in India, diamond wire saw (DWS) machines are mainly used. The cutting performance of the DWS machine, or diamond cutting tools depends on non-controllable parameters related to rock characteristics and controllable parameters related to machine and other operational aspects. Cut size area of a bench is one of the operational controllable parameters and it has an important role in the cutting performance of the machine. Dolomitic marble deposits are available in large quantities in India. Thus, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of bench cut size area on the cutting performance of DWS machines in soft, medium-hard and hard dolomitic marble. The study revealed that cut size of the bench plays a significant role in the performance of the DWS machine. The optimum bench cut size also varies with the nature of marble to be cut. It also depends on the types of cuts to be made in the marble such as vertical, vertical strand and horizontal. The results of this study can also be applied to other types of marble and they will also be of use to the operators of stone quarry machine.     Raw Stone Processing     Stones exploited from mines by rock driller with irregular form and rough section are called raw stones, which can not be applied in plate processing immediately. At present, raw stone in China mainly involves marble and granite. With the development of technology, the old way of shaping stones by labor is outdated.     Diamond saw blade used to process raw stones usually owns a large circular saw blade, on which diamond grits are inserted. Owning to its flexible property, diamond wire saw blade can be used to process ultra-hard stones. However, its diameter is usually large, and its height is twice the stones to be processed together with the diameter of Flange. It is not easy to produce diamond saw blade with too large diameter. Therefore, diamond saw blade is unsuitable to process oversize plates.     Comparatively, diamond wire saw not only owns the flexibility of ropes, but also owns rigidity of diamond. Moreover, they are not limited by length. Due to those features, diamond wire saws are almost applicable to cut any large objects. It has many advantages, such as short time preparation, strong flexibility, high efficiency, energy saving, etc, which make diamond wire saws popular in stone mining and stone processing.     Plate Cutting     When processing stones, plate cutting is a quite important step. Usually diamond saw blades are used to cut plates. But in this situation, the size of plates is relatively small. One diamond wire saw is able to cut large plates and ultra-large plates, and is not restrained by the thickness of stones. However, compared with diamond frame saws containing several tens or a few hundreds saws, diamond wire saw is neither efficient nor cost-effective. Consequently, diamond wire saws are used when plates are too thick or their amount is small. With the development of technology, combined diamond quarry wire saws are went out. Combined diamond wire saws can be applied in cutting marble and granite plates when changing different beads or linear velocity of diamond wire saws.     Irregular Stones Processing     Irregular stones refer to all special-shaped stones except sheet and block stones, and include many types, such as pillars and arches. Nowadays, people’ s demands are much stricter, so it is with irregular stones processing. In the course of irregular stones processing, diamond wire saws and diamond saw blades are used. Owing to its high linear velocity, diamond wire saws could shift curve type and arc type, and can be widely applied in processing parquet and curved sides.     Concrete wire sawing is a versatile and effective concrete sawing tool used for particularly challenging projects where traditional saws won’t work. When cutting through concrete structures, cross-sections, and other complex objects, manual saws are often unable to do the job effectively—when those situations arise, wire saws can get the job done. Once set up, wire saws can easily saw through any concrete, stone, or metal structure.     A concrete wire saw consists of a thin steel wire with diamond segments embedded that cut through hard materials via abrasion. The wire is threaded through a system of pulleys that are aligned in the direction of the cut. Once the wire is securely wrapped around the object, the pulley pulls the wire across the concrete and begins cutting. Water is fed across the system to keep the wire lubricated and the system from overheating from extreme friction.                 WHEN IS Quarry Wire Saw NECESSARY?           If you have a difficult construction project that involves cutting through steel-encased concrete, concrete-encased steel supports, concrete retaining walls, or reinforced rebar, wire saws can saw through them safely and with ease. Due to its diamond cutting edge, wire saws are ideal for segmenting or removing large chunks of reinforced concrete when other saws can’t cut through the strong material. Stone cutting wire saws can also be configured to tackle unique structures such as steel nuclear reactors or metal engine blocks.                 THE BENEFITS OF WIRE SAWS           There are several reasons why conventional diamond saw blades won’t work for a concrete cutting project: the concrete structure may be too large, the shape may be too irregular to safely work around, the location may be too inaccessible, or the structure may be too heavily reinforced for blades to cut through. Wire saws are easily able to navigate all of those problems. The benefits of using wire saws for concrete construction projects also include:                              Cleaner construction areas. Since water needs to flow across the wire saw to keep concrete dust from building up and damaging the equipment, this process produces much less airborne dust than traditional saws. Not only does less dust make the construction area easier to clean up, but it also keeps workers from inhaling concrete particulates                             Deeper concrete cuts. Traditional cut-off machines, diamond chainsaws, and circular saws have a limited reach. Concrete cutting wire saw offers an almost unlimited depth range for concrete cutting.                                      Precision cutting. Since the wire is more narrow and flexible than ring saws, concrete cuts will be more precise using wires. And since the wire is guided through pre-cut drill holes, the final cuts will always be the right size and in the right location.                                         Easy access. Wire saws don’t require as much space to operate as ring saws do. And since they aren’t manually operated, it’s an ideal option for construction jobs that have hard-to-reach places and are in challenging environments like underwater.                                                         Quiet. Wire saws cause minimal vibrations and are much quieter than other construction equipment. This low noise output makes it the preferred cutting option for residential projects and night operations.                              Quick cutting. Since wire sawing doesn’t require manual operators, the machine can cut at a consistent speed without breaks. This keeps construction projects running on schedule.                              Increased safety. Because wire saws are remote control operated, it minimizes the risk of an accident and keeps everyone near the construction site safe     PROBLEMS WITH CONCRETE WIRE SAWS           Just because wire saws are remotely operated doesn’t mean there isn’t a chance of injury. Since the wires are under extreme tension, there is always a chance that they can snap and cause extreme injuries to anyone nearby. Construction teams should still take proper safety precautions when using this piece of machinery. Just like any large piece of machinery, only trained specialists should operate wire saws with dry cutter.           A-CORE’S WIRE SAWING CAPABILITIES           The concrete wire saw, or diamond saw blade for concrete has become an indispensable tool for any concrete cutting company because of its adaptability and strength. At A-Core, we rely on our wire sawing division to handle many of our toughest projects.       From state governments and private contractors to residential homeowners, we produce quality concrete wire sawing services to a wide spectrum of clients. Whether we’re repairing highways, retrofitting the Utah State Capitol for a seismic update, or executing controlled demolition on a 230-foot smokestack, A-Core provides practical and flexible solutions for all types of construction challenges.      Many of our projects involve segmenting and removing all types of difficult-to-cut materials from hard-to-reach places. So when it comes to cutting and hauling away large, reinforced concrete masses from piers, bridges, towers, dams, and other structures, our wire sawing division is always ready. 

Publish Date: 2021/08/09

How Do Trampolines and Massage Guns Work?

Description:   The trampoline has always been the gift that keeps on giving. According to Kelly Burstow from leading Australian blog “Be A Fun Mum“, if she could only pick one piece of play equipment for her kids, it would be the trampoline. As trampolines evolve and become safer and bouncier, there is no doubt that the trampoline will remain one of those rare toys that continues to thrive and rival screens where other equipment has long since retired into the past.     So can owning a trampoline really be life-changing?     We all know kids love jumping up and down on a trampoline, but is there really any more to it than that? Well, you’d be surprised to learn just how much more there is to it! Our research into the topic showed an astonishing number of amazing benefits to owning a mini trampoline that really could change the lives of your kids and your whole family!     1. Trampolining literally makes you happy     Simple pleasures     So, why are trampolines loved so much?                     It’s an interesting question, because there isn’t much to a trampoline. It’s simply a vertical bounce up and down with a few tricks thrown in for good measure (if you have the skills). Yet, it’s the simplicity of the trampoline that is the key to its success. Almost anyone can do it. There are no strict rules or time restrictions; you just jump on and the fun begins!                             Relieves stress and releases endorphins                             Trampolining takes a certain amount of concentration since it requires many different mental and movement processes, and it also works as fitness equipment. This can help kids (and adults alike) to reduce their levels of stress by focusing their minds on something different. It’s also a great way to have fun, and stimulates the body to naturally release endorphins, which in turn helps kids to feel happier and more at ease. This is a great method for everything from unwinding after school to reducing everyday stress levels in the home.       2. Gets kids involved in outdoor play     Fights the Screen Battle     One of the best things about owning a trampoline is that your kids can play at home. If you just want a fun play, you don’t have to head out to the park, go to a play centre, or do a paid activity. It’s not only convenient but it also means that, when you have older kids, you can be getting on with things around the house while they are occupied. It is also the ultimate alternative to spending weekends, afternoons and holidays in front of the TV or other screens for many kids. There are tons of games you can create that involve the trampoline – like adding some balloons or a sprinkler – on those days when the kids need more than a simple bounce. Government research out of the United Kingdom is showing that kids are spending less time outdoors than prisoners, which equates to less than an hour a day! A trampoline is an effective tool for parents to get kids outside and into the sunshine where they belong.     Increases Vitamin D     What’s more, getting exposure to sunlight while playing outdoors raises kids’ levels of Vitamin D, which helps protect children from future bone problems. According to the Vitamin D Council, it also helps to improve the immune system, muscle function, cardiovascular function, the respiratory system and brain development, and even has anti-cancer benefits!                     3. Trampolines can help with anxiety, sensory issues, Autism and special needs     Anxiety     Trampolining helps people with autism, sensory issues and special needs to tackle anxiety and relieve stress. The rhythmic action of tampolining can be very soothing. It can also give kids something positive that they can do to help them calm down after a stressful incident.     Sensory stimulation     Trampolining is also a great way to meet kids’ sensory stimulation requirements, giving them lots of movement to stimulate their senses, or a focused activity to do when they may feel over-stimulated elsewhere. Trampolines are particularly useful to children with Hypersensitivity to movement (under responsive) in relation to their vestibular system. (You can read more about that here.) As such, trampolines are quite commonly used in therapy for kids on the spectrum or with Sensory Processing Disorder.     Other benefits     For children with Autism or special needs, jumping on a trampoline can also have a positive effect on their behaviour and impulse control. Doing trampolining before school or before homework can also help to improve their concentration and focus (don’t take our word for it, give it a go!).     How Do Massage Guns Work?     The short answer: it’s not entirely clear how these devices work on the body. They may help relax sore muscles by stimulating the GTO (Golgi tendon organ), a structure within a muscle that inhibits contraction. Massage guns may also override the sensation of pain within a sore muscle in the same way you might if you rub your forehead after smacking it on a door jamb (this is what’s known as the “Gate Control Theory of Pain.”)     But the most likely mechanism of soft tissue work—whether it’s a foam roller, a massage gun, or the trained hands of a massage therapist—is neural, says performance coach and physical therapist, Dr. John Rusin. “Mostly you’re affecting your brain’s ability to sense tightness or laxity in soft tissue, whether it’s a muscle, tendon, or fascia.” The therapist’s hands (or the roller, or the mini massage gun) focuses your attention on the tight muscle allowing your brain to zero in on the tension and let it go.      Effects of Massage Guns     Early research suggests that, when performed before exercise, such as pogo stick, vibration therapy is as effective at preventing soreness as traditional massage in untrained women. Does that mean it’s “effective” at preventing or relieving soreness, period? It’s not clear.     Massage guns increase blood flow, which shuttles nutrients into the muscle while also removing blood that may have pooled in the muscles—a common occurrence, often following long periods of inactivity, that can result in swelling in the extremities. If you use the gun directly after a workout, such as magnetic bike, or exercise bike, it may facilitate the removal of metabolites—waste products—associated with exercise, which can cause burning in the muscles.     “It’s an out-with-the-bad, in-with-the-good effect,” says Rusin, similar to what you can achieve with foam rolling, yoga, and light exercise.      Best Ways to Use the Massage Gun     “With massage guns, a little goes a long way,” says San, who works with MMA fighters, NFL players, and other elite athletes. 1-2 minutes on a large muscle group—like the quadriceps—is plenty.      “You don’t want to over-stimulate the muscle,” he explains. Excessive use drives fluid into the muscle without allowing it to flow out again. “It’s a powerful tool, so keep it on a low setting.” Higher settings are reserved for truly massive folks, he explains—NFL linemen and other heavyweights.      Rusin suggests that novelty is part of the tool’s effectiveness and that the effects may diminish with frequent use. So instead of using the massager every day, rotate your approach: foam roll one day, use contrast baths on another, the massage gun on a third day, and so on.      How NOT to use a Massage Gun     “The no pain, no gain mentality is a real thing,” says Rusin. If a cool compress is good, many dedicated exercisers believe that dry ice must be better; if a soft foam roller is effective, a hard, knobby one must be more so.      This is particularly true of the massage gun. “People find areas that hurt and think that means they need to stay on them,” he says. “In fact, they may be running over a bony prominence, or a vein-artery nerve bundle.” Long-term, he says, pounding on these vulnerable areas can lead to neuropathy, numbness in the hands, and other problems.     San agrees: “The massage gun is no match for a skilled massage therapist.” It can’t tell the difference between bone, muscle, fascia, and nerve; it doesn’t know if you’re injured; it doesn’t know if a tissue is too tight or too loose.      The upshot: don’t get too trigger-happy with the professional massage gun. Avoid painful areas, and spend at most couple of minutes after a workout—or on rest days—on each muscle group. Ideally, San suggests using them as an adjunct to working with a professional massage therapist. “It complements what I’m doing,” he says. 

Publish Date: 2021/08/09

Main Benefits Of Wearing Wigs

Description:     Wigs or extensions may upgrade any hairstyle for every event, festival, or occasion. When it arises to wigs, they are prepared from two main materials: human hair and synthetic hair. Human and synthetic wigs have their benefits. The wig or extension is becoming normal in acrylic nails, hair-shade, and shape-types, which immediately promote beauty, confidence, and overall elegance. Nowadays, prove to be useful in offering wearers with simply available style changes, exposure, and luxurious style.     Wigs have become a main part of the beauty world. Wigs are great to wear because you can try many various hairstyles or hair shade without changing your original hair at all. With wigs, your hair can be good forever. If you wish them to remain of excellent quality for a long time, you have to take proper care of them. There are many reasons why women like wigs very much. Here are many advantages of wearing human hair and synthetic.     Hide the Thin Hair:     Both women and men may face hair loss problems for many reasons, comprising heredity, disease, hormonal changes, and medication. Many people reflect hair as a significant part of their complete look, and wigs may hide the thin hair and provide you confidence.     Convenience:     The best thing about original hair is that it needs a vital amount of maintenance to look properly, especially for the long hairdo. Though, wigs are an excellent method to save money and time getting ready as you may put it on minutes and on your way instead of hours.     Provide Natural Look:     There are circumstances, festivals, or events when you have to look well-dressed in your appearance. If you wish for an original look, then you need to choose a human hair wig, or machine hair wigs. Though, when selecting your required wig color, it is recommendable to choose the best shade that fits your original hair.     Protect You From Heat Styling Appliances:     Wig saves your hair from heat styling appliances. Your wig will absorb heat and protects your natural hair. Musicians, Actors, and entertainers of all types frequently wear wigs to change their look to perform their roles, and it also avoids heat styling options.     Unlimited Styles:     Normally, making important hair changes or styles leads to expensive trips to the beauty salon every seven days, but with a massive range of wigs, you can shake your hair shade or style loud at any time. If you want to hide your broad forehead, then you can use the Lace Front Wigs. You may select various types of wigs according to your suitability.     Save Money:     Regardless of going to the beauty salon for a hairdo or style, you may wear a wig that is previously designed the method you wish, and it will save your time and money. The wigs extraordinary thing is that you make any hairstyles and shade without having to walk into the salon every time. Since original hair wigs are tough, they tend to maintain their superiority and keep in the best condition for a long time.     Restore Confidence:     Original and human hair wig goes untouched, which increases the wearers self- confidence and self-esteem. Since human hair wigs look actual and real, they may increase your confidence. You can do daily work without any doubts.     Final Words:     There are various advantages of wearing a wig as it secures your original hair from damage. and there is headband wigs especially. Particularly it protects hair from heat, hairdo, styling, and coloring, and it is an actual method to change your appearance entirely. It also provides self-confidence to women who struggle with Alopecia disease. To search for the best wig for yourself, you need to select a shade and the hairstyle you think will look excellent.     Wigs are having a moment. From Vivica Fox, who has her own wig line, to Christina Hendricks and Lady Gaga, famous ladies are now changing up their hairstyles as often as an Oscars host changes outfits, with using hair extensions. Why? The commitment-free hairpieces are easier to use and more realistic than they once were.     "Technology for netting, materials, and machines have changed so they are better than ever," says Edward Tricomi, master stylist and co- founder of the Warren-Tricomi Salons.     But as much as the 2.0 versions can help decide if your bang style is on-fleek, the construction of these new hair systems are also ideal for women with medical conditions who just want hair that looks and feels like their own.     Here, experts answer seven essential questions about wigs.     Q: What Are They Actually Made Out of? There are two kinds of wigs: Human hair and synthetic hair. The natural hair is mainly sourced from India or Asia and costs significantly more than the faux version. But if you're looking for something more affordable, opt for a synthetic wig that's heat resistant, says Andrew DiSimone, wig expert and salon owner at HairPlace NYC. That’s because if you're cooking or open the oven door, the gust of heat could damage synthetic hair that’s not heat- resistant, he cautions.     Synthetic hair is also best for cuts that fall above your shoulders, like a bob, since the lengthier options can start to wear and fray if the man-made fibers rub against your shoulders.     How to prepare for a wig     If you think you might want to get a wig, it’s helpful to take some steps to prepare before you start chemotherapy or another treatment that may cause hair loss. For example:             Find or take a couple of pictures of your preferred hairstyle. This will make it easier to find a wig that’s closest to your color, length, and style if you decide that’s what you want.             Cut your hair short. It's less traumatic to lose short clumps of hair than long ones, and it's easier to fit a wig over less hair. Also, if you get used to short hair, you won’t have to wait as long while your hair is growing back to feel like yourself.             Consider picking out a wig before you start a treatment that can cause hair loss. You’ll have more energy, and you can get used to wearing the wig in trial sessions, alternating with your own hair.     Where to get a wig     How do you find a wig? There are a number of options:                     At a wig shop. You can get recommendations for local wig shops or specialists through breast cancer organizations, your hospital’s cancer center, or through your hairdresser. Some wig specialists come to your home to provide additional privacy.                     Online. Like most things nowadays, you can shop for a wig, like HD hair wigs, or hair bundles, online. Online retailers have a large selection of wigs in every color, length, and style. Some offer consultations over the phone or via email to help you find the right style for you. This can also be a good option if you’d prefer more privacy when selecting your wig.                     Through a charity program. Instead of shopping for a wig (and possibly getting reimbursed for some or all of the cost through your health insurance company), you may want to look into getting a wig for free through programs of the American Cancer Society or other nonprofit organizations (see “ Covering the cost of a wig” below for more info).     Wherever you decide to shop for a wig, be sure to find out about return and exchange policies in advance. You may want to try on several wigs at home and return some of them, or you may decide after trying some on that you don’t want to opt for a wig at all. So, it’s useful to know if there will be restocking fees or other limitations on returns.     Covering the cost of a wig     Many health insurance companies cover part or all of the cost of the wig if your doctor writes a prescription. A wig is, after all, a remedy for a treatment side effect, just as important as medication you take to treat nausea. Here are the steps to take if you want to try to get your insurance to pay for your wig:             Before purchasing a wig, call your health insurance company and ask if they will cover a “cranial prosthesis” for hair loss related to chemotherapy or radiation therapy. If so, ask what is the maximum cost they will cover, what paperwork you will need to submit your claim (including details on what the prescription from your doctor needs to say), and how long it will take to get reimbursed.                     In most cases, you will have to pay for your wig upfront and then get reimbursed after you submit a claim to your insurance company. Typically, you’ll need to send your insurance company a prescription from your doctor for a “cranial prosthesis” or a “hair prosthesis” (with a cancer diagnosis code), the receipt for the wig (with the wig company’s tax ID number), and a completed insurance claim form. Some wig providers and hospital centers will handle the insurance claim for you and won’t require you to pay upfront.                         Keep a copy of your receipt if you end up paying for all or part of your wig out of pocket. It might be a medical expense that you can take as a tax deduction.     If you don't have coverage or would prefer not to go through the process of filing an insurance claim, keep in mind that the American Cancer Society and a number of other organizations offer free or reduced cost wigs to people undergoing cancer treatment. You can find out about options for getting a free wig by searching online, contacting your local chapter of the American Cancer Society, or contacting the social workers at your local cancer center.    

Publish Date: 2021/08/09

Nebulizers: What they are and how to use them

Description:     Oxygen generators separate oxygen from air so that the gas can be fed into industrial processes in real-time or stored in pressure tanks. Oxygen generators are used in dozens of industrial applications ranging from gold mining to aquaculture to life support.     Normal ambient air is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and other trace gases like argon and CO2. In order to remove the nitrogen and trace gases an oxygen generator is used.     The smallest portable oxygen concentrator can be no larger than a soda can, while industrial oxygen generators can be as large as a bus. However, all oxygen generators have the same purpose: to provide a safe supply of concentrated oxygen gas.     Businesses who need bulk oxygen often start by purchasing tanks from other companies who fill those tanks using an industrial oxygen generator. If the need is large and ongoing, it may be cost-effective for the business to purchase their own oxygen generator and produce oxygen on site. While the up-front cost of the machinery is significant, the cost per cubic foot of oxygen generated is 1/3 to 1/2 that of purchasing bulk oxygen, so over time the oxygen concentrator can pay for itself.     One example of this is hospitals that pipe oxygen into patient rooms. Instead of bottled oxygen, most hospitals have one or more industrial oxygen generators in the building.     Types of Oxygen Generators     Pressure Swing Adsorption Oxygen Generator     Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) is the most common method of producing oxygen at an industrial scale. PSA generators separate nitrogen from ambient air inside a pressurized tank filled with Zeolite. Zeolite is a natural or man-made mineral that acts as a “molecular sieve.” It is this ability to “ sort” molecules by size that makes zeolite so useful. The larger nitrogen molecules are adsorbed by the sieve material while the smaller oxygen molecules drift past and are collected. Pressure is then released, the nitrogen molecules are vented to the atmosphere, and the tank is pressurized again.     Using PSA will result in 90-95% oxygenated gas. Further refinement can be achieved by repeating the process until over 99% “pure” oxygen is generated.     As a side note, the PSA process can also be used to generate nitrogen by collecting the nitrogen molecules and venting the oxygen. PSA is also used in the large-scale commercial synthesis of hydrogen used in oil refineries and in the production of ammonia for fertilizer.     One special kind of oxygen generator is more commonly known as an oxygen concentrator which is used as an alternative to oxygen bottles for home health care. While the up-front cost of the machine is more expensive than oxygen cylinders, they are safer than bottled oxygen and over time less expensive than having oxygen tanks delivered to the home.     Oxygen concentrators are normally sold through medical supply houses and can be purchased with a prescription from a physician.             A nebulizer is a piece of medical equipment that a person with asthma or another respiratory condition can use to administer medication directly and quickly to the lungs.         A nebulizer turns liquid medicine into a very fine mist that a person can inhale through a face mask or mouthpiece. Taking medicine this way allows it to go straight into the lungs and the respiratory system where it is needed.             How to use a nebulizer         Before a person starts taking medicine with a portable nebulizer, a doctor or nurse will explain how the nebulizer works and answer any questions.     If a person receives their nebulizer from a pharmacy or medical equipment company, someone there will explain how to use it.     Each nebulizing machine operates a little differently. It is crucial to read the instructions for the particular device that the doctor has prescribed.     In general, a nebulizer is very easy to use, with only a few basic steps:             Wash the hands.                       Add the medicine to the medicine cup, according to the doctor’s prescription.                     Assemble the top piece, tubing, mask, and mouthpiece.                                     Attach the tubing to the machine, according to the instructions.                         Turn the nebulizer on; they can be battery- or electrically powered.             While using the nebulizer, hold the mouthpiece and medicine cup upright to help deliver all the medication.                         Take slow, deep breaths through the mouthpiece and inhale all the medicine.             Please speak with the doctor or call the manufacturer with any questions or concerns about the device.     Typically, a nebulizer and the medicine it uses require a prescription from a doctor or another healthcare provider.     It is possible to purchase a nebulizer machine online without a prescription, though a doctor will probably still need to prescribe the medication.     However, some medication manufacturers require the use of a specific type of nebulizer with oximeter, so it is always a good idea to double-check with the pharmacist or doctor before making a purchase.     There are several types of medication that a person can use with a nebulizer:                     Bronchodilators: These are drugs that help open the airways and make breathing easier. Doctors often prescribe bronchodilators to people with asthma, COPD, or other respiratory disorders.                             Sterile saline solution: A nebulizer can deliver sterile saline to help open the airways and thin secretions. This may loosen and make it easier to cough up mucus in the lungs.                     Antibiotics: A nebulizer can deliver some types of antibiotics straight into the lungs or respiratory tract when someone has a severe respiratory infection.                             Surgical gowns are traditionally worn to protect patients from contamination by the surgical team, and it works as isolation gowns. Blood routinely covers gowns during surgery and often contaminates surgeons' undergarments and skin. Because of risks to the surgical team by blood-borne pathogens, disposable and reusable gowns were examined. To quantify "strike through," 1440 samples of gown fabric were tested against human blood in an apparatus designed to simulate abdominal pressure during surgery. Representative pressures (0.25 to 2.0 psi) and times (1 second to 5 minutes) were studied. Above 0.5 psi, spun-bond/melt-blown/spun-bond disposable products were more resistant than spun-lace cloth. New cloth gowns were better than those washed 40 times. Spunbond/melt-blown/spun-bond fabric exposed to blood twice was more protective than spun-lace cloth challenged once. Gowns currently available exhibit varying resistance to strike through; only those with an impervious plastic reinforcement offer complete protection.

Publish Date: 2021/08/09

Benefits of Using Brass Fittings

Description:     What are Brass Fittings Used For?     Brass is one of the most commonly used materials for making brass pipe fittings. The zinc and copper alloy has been used for centuries because of its unique properties that make it a good choice for a variety of uses. Of course, in more recent history and modern times, the most common use for brass is in pipes and fittings used in plumbing. Brass pipe fittings are often the choice of plumbers and other construction professionals because of its dynamic properties. It is more durable and flexible than other material options and resistant to corrosion.     Brass hose barb fittings are typically used for carrying water, chemicals, flammable gases, slurries, and other plumbing substances. Pipe fittings made of brass come in a wide range of shapes and thread sizes to connect, adapt, or control any liquid or gas in pipes.     Besides plumbing, brass fittings are also used for some automotive applications, such as in air brakes, hose ends, and fuel line valves. You may also find brass fittings in ballcock adapters, refrigerator cooler fittings, and compression fittings.     Why are Brass Fittings Used?     The effectiveness of brass as the material for pipe fittings provides you with safe and durable components within your plumbing system. While they can be a bit more expensive than some other types of fittings, brass fittings are worth the extra cash. Here are five reasons why you should use brass fittings for your next plumbing project:             1. They are durable - Brass Compression Fittings have been used in both residential and industrial plumbing because it is great for heavy-duty use and it stays in good condition for years. When you have a plumbing project that needs to have a long lifespan, brass is a good choice because it lasts for a long time without disintegrating or even cracking. It’s also perfect for use in hot water supply lines.             2. They can withstand high temperatures - As the best fitting material for distributing hot water, brass provides exceptional conductivity and improves the efficiency of the distribution system. In fact, brass fittings can tolerate much higher temperatures than fittings made of other materials, up to the point of being fire resistant.                     3. They are malleable - You may find that you need to mold or shape a fitting to make it work in specific areas. If so, then a brass fitting is the ideal choice. Brass is a malleable metal – much more so than iron or steel. That makes brass fittings a very flexible option for many tight plumbing spots.                     4. They are corrosion resistant - Brass doesn’t rust and it is highly resistant to corrosion. Rust and corrosion rapidly speed up the natural wear and tear process on the fitting, so when you are looking for long-lasting fittings, brass is the best material for the job.                             5. They are versatile - You can find brass fittings in all types and sizes, so you can always find just what you need for your specific plumbing projects.               There are so many different types of brass brass push on hose barb that you can use, that's what makes them so versatile. Here are a few of the most common ones:                         - Pipe couplings: used to connect pipes of the same size (unless it’s a reducing coupler, where the pipes are different sizes)                                     - Pipe adaptors: used to change the connection type (male or female) at the end of a pipe                                     - Pipe nipples: typically used to connect two fittings                                     - Pipe tees: in the shape of a “T”, used when more than one branch is required of a water supply                                     - Pipe elbows: used to change the direction of flow between pipes                                     - Pipe unions: used in the same manner as couplings                                     - Pipe plugs: used to close pipes                                     - Pipe wyes: in the shape of a "Y", used to join pipes at a 45-degree angle                 That’s not an exhaustive list, there are various other types of brass fittings that are ideal for just about every need you can think of. Additionally, you can find brass fittings in a range of sizes - from smaller sizes that are perfect for residential jobs to larger sizes that are used for industrial applications.     What are Some of the Alternatives to Brass Fittings?     While brass fittings are ideal for many uses, such as garden hose fitting, there are some alternatives that can be used in some situations. Some of the most common alternatives to brass fittings are copper, PVC, CPVC, PEX, steel, and cast iron.                     Copper fittings are most commonly used in residential water systems and HVAC refrigerant lines. They are used for both hot and cold-water applications.                               PVC (polyvinyl chloride) fittings are the most common type of plastic fittings, and they come in a variety of shapes and sizes. They are typically only used for cold water applications.                       CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) fittings are used for both hot and cold-water applications in residential plumbing.                     Steel fittings are used for cold and hot water applications and are strong and durable with a high heat resistance. However, they are prone to rusting.                     Black iron fittings are typically used for drain and waste pipes. Black iron fittings are an improvement over cast iron due to its improved corrosion resistance.             Takeaway     Brass pipe fittings are perfect for many residential and industrial plumbing needs. While they do tend to cost a bit more, they are not too significantly more expensive than other options. Their durability, dependability, and quality make brass fittings a wise investment for the few extra dollars. Next, check out our post that helps you determine which type of piping you should use to go with your fittings.     Pressure peaks in a hydraulics can break pressure sensors and cause damages far higher than the price of a humble pressure snubber that could have prevented them. So, what are they and when should they be used?     Sometimes small oversights such as a sudden valve opening or closing can cascade into larger problems, creating pump ripple or fluid hammer. These problems “confuse” pressure sensors so that signals become noisy, cycle life is reduced and, in some cases, there are catastrophic failures. All these headaches and unforeseen costs can be avoided with a simple pressure snubber to limit the amplitude of pressure transients.

Publish Date: 2021/08/09

How useful are hand sanitizers and learning toy?

Description:     How useful are hand sanitizers?     They're definitely useful in the hospital, to help prevent the transfer of viruses and bacteria from one patient to another by hospital personnel.      Outside of the hospital, most people catch respiratory viruses from direct contact with people who already have them, and alcohol sanitizer gel won't do anything in those circumstances. And they haven't been shown to have more disinfecting power than just washing your hands with soap and water.        Convenient cleaning     Hand disnfectants do, however, have a role during peak respiratory virus season (roughly October to April) because they make it much easier to clean your hands.     It can be challenging to wash your hands every time you sneeze or cough, especially when you are outdoors or in a car. Hand sanitizers are convenient, so they make it more likely that people will clean their hands, and that's better than not cleaning at all.     According to the Centers for Diseae Control (CDC), however, for hand sanitizer to be effective it must be used correctly. That means using the proper amount (read the label to see how much you should use), and rubbing it all over the surfaces of both hands until your hands are dry. Do not wipe your hands or wash them after applying.     Are all hand sanitizers created equal?     It's important to make sure any hand sanitizer, or alcohol sanitizer spray you do use contains at least 60 percent alcohol.      Studies have found that sanitizers with lower concentrations or non-alcohol-based hand sanitizers are not as effective at killing germs as those with 60 to 95 percent alcohol.     In particular, non-alcohol-based sanitizers may not work equally well on different types of germs and could cause some germs to develop resistance to the sanitizer.     Are hand sanitizers and other antimicrobial products bad for you?     There is no proof that alcohol-based hand sanitizers and other antimicrobial products are harmful.     They could theoretically lead to antibacterial resistance. That's the reason most often used to argue against using hand sanitizers. But that hasn't been proven. In the hospital, there hasn't been any evidence of resistance to alcohol-based hand sanitizers.     However, while there aren't any studies showing that hand sanitizers definitely pose a threat, there also isn't any evidence that they do a better job of protecting you from harmful bacteria than soap.     So while hand sanitizers have their place — in hospitals or when you can't get to a sink — washing with soap and warm water is almost always a better choice.      When to avoid hand sanitizers     You should always clean with soap and water if your hands are visibly dirty, or if you've touched chemicals.      When hands are heavily soiled or greasy — such as after playing outdoor sports or working at a construction site — the CDC cautions that hand sanitizers may not work well at all.     Benefits of soap and water     Whenever you can, just wash your hands — for at least 20 seconds — with non-bacterial soap and warm water, and alcohol wipes.     The CDC says soap and water are more effective than hand sanitizers at removing certain types of germs. They also do a better job of preserving the flora, or "good" bacteria, on your hands.     Your whole body is covered with bacteria, and if you remove those good bacteria, they can be replaced by other, potentially harmful, bacteria. Natural bacteria are there for a reason.      The best defense: cleanliness     What does your room look like? What does the bathroom look like? How about your phone? There's a good chance all of these things need to be cleaned. It's not necessary to use antimicrobial products: The important thing is to keep everything clean on a regular basis.     On the other hand, some people are concerned about hygiene to an extreme extent. The good news is that if you do the usual things like practicing good hand hygiene and avoiding touching your face — rather than taking extraordinary measures — you'll be fine.     Toys for Toddlers        Toddlers can play with a wider variety of toys than they did when they were smaller.  They might still enjoy some of the toys they played with as babies, and that’s fine.  The same blocks they played with a year or two ago can provide them with new and different educational opportunities as their knowledge expands.  But they also need toys that are designed with kids their age in mind.   Shape sorters are great for toddlers.  They teach them how to match similar items and provide parents the opportunity to teach them the names of the shapes.  Lego blocks provide an opportunity to learn more about colors and symmetry while they develop their motor skills.      Toys for Preschool and School-Aged Children       When children reach preschool age, it’s time to start learning about letters, numbers and language skills.  There are lots of new toys that encourage this type of learning, from simple alphabet puzzles to high-tech electronic gadgets. These can give your child a head start by introducing her to the things she will be learning in school. Kids who are in school can supplement their learning with fun and educational toys.  Giving them the opportunity to have fun while practicing the things they are learning in school will increase their retention of those things.  And when your child finds an educational toy she really likes, she will be more likely to play with it, reinforcing the things she has learned. Children can learn a lot from playing.  When you give your child educational learning toys and play with them with her, it gives her a chance to bond with you, learn, and have fun at the same time. And there are also make up toy, or cosmetic toys. And making education enjoyable will help your child retain the things she learns and develop a positive attitude toward learning.

Publish Date: 2021/08/09

What is a Steel Flange?

Description:     THE BASICS OF STEEL FLANGES     Stainless steel flanges provide an easy access for cleaning, inspection or modification. They usually come in round shapes but they can also come in square and rectangular forms. The flanges are joined to each other by bolting and joined to the piping system by welding or threading and are designed to the specific pressure ratings; 150lb, 300lb, 400lb, 600lb, 900lb, 1500lb and 2500lb.     A flange can be a plate for covering or closing the end of a pipe. This is called a blind flange. Thus, flanges are considered to be internal components which are used to support mechanical parts.           MATERIALS     Each flange material is to be considered for its application prior to ordering, this is due to the structural integrity of the application that the flange will be used on.     Currently, the most common materials for flanges are:     Carbon steel   ? ASTM A105/A266 Gr.2 (high temperature carbon steel flanges)   ? ASTM A350 LF1 to LF3 (low temperature carbon steel flanges)   ? ASTM A694 Gr. F42/F52/F56/F60/F65 (high yield carbon steel flanges to match API 5L linepipes)     Alloy Steel   ? ASTM A182 Gr. F1/F2/F5/F9/F11 Cl.2/F12 Cl.2/F22 Cl.3/F91 (alloy steel flanges)     Stainless / Duplex Steel   ? ASTM A182 F304/304L, 316/316L, 321, 347, 348 (stainless steel flanges), 904/904L   ? ASTM A182 F51 (duplex flanges)/F53-F55 (superduplex flanges)     Nickel Alloys / Superalloys   ? ASTM B166 UNS NO6600 (Inconel 600)   ? ASTM B564 UNS N06625 (Inconel 625)   ? ASTM B425 UNS-NO8800 (Incoloy 800)   ? ASTM B564 UNS N08825 (Incoloy 825)   ? ASTM B160 UNS N0200 (Nickel 200)   ? ASTM B564 UNS N04400 (Monel 400)   ? ASTM B564 UNS N10276 (Hastelloy C-276)     Titanium   ? ASTM B381 Gr.2 (Titanium)     In industry, flanges, including stainless steel flate flanges , stainless steel slip on flanges, and stainless steel weld neck flanges, form a vital connecting link for piping, valves and other equipment. They provide an easy point of access for cleaning, inspection, modification, and for necessary repairs. A flanged joint provides a strong seal in a closed system, and is made by bolting together a gasket flanked by two flanges.     In heavy industry, these flanges need to be especially resilient or they can prove to be the weak point in a system. It is important therefore, to ensure that the flanges you are choosing are up to the task.     Why are stainless steel flanges preferred for industrial use?     In all metal applications, corrosion is a constant consideration. Rust, chemicals and other environmental factors all take their toll on metals. Therefore, the choice of flange would need to be resistant to these factors. Stainless steel outperforms other metal flanges – including carbon steel – due to its high resistance to corrosion.     Stainless steel is incredibly strong and durable, capable of withstanding immense pressures. By comparison, aluminium may be a cheaper option but it is softer and not as reliable under heavy stress.     Any system or piece of equipment is only as strong as its weakest part. Joins and welds are traditionally a weak point, so it would be wise to make sure that your choice of metal is correct for the application.     Depending its use, a flange may need to withstand high very temperatures. The correct grade of stainless steel flange would ensure that there is no warping or deformation which would compromise the system.     Cheaper, lower grade metal flanges may be fine for certain applications, but if you want your system or equipment to work at maximum capacity, then you should consider spending a little more on stainless steel flanges.     WHAT ARE PIPE FLANGES AND HOW DO THEY WORK?     Offering a reliable way to connect pipe systems with the various equipment, valves, and other components of virtually any processing system, flanges are the second most used joining method after welding.     Using flanges adds flexibility when maintaining piping systems by allowing for easier disassembly and improved access to system components.     A typical flanged connection is comprised of three parts:             Pipe Flanges                     Gasket                     Bolting     In most cases, there are specific gasket and bolting materials made from the same, or approved materials as the piping components you wish to connect. Stainless Steel flanges are some of the most common, and mostly stainless steel threaded flanges. However, flanges are available in a wide range of materials so matching them with your needs is essential.     Other common flange materials include Monel, Inconel, Chrome Moly, and many others depending on the application.     The best option for your needs will depend on both the system in which you intend to use the flange and your specific requirements.     COMMON FLANGE TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS     Flanges are not a one-type-fits-all sort of solution. Sizing aside, matching the ideal flange design to your piping system and intended usage will help to ensure reliable operation, a long service life, and optimal pricing.     MAKING THE CONNECTION: FLANGE FACING TYPES     Flange design is only the start when considering the ideal flange for your piping system. Face types are another characteristic that will have a major impact on the final performance and service life of your flanges.     Facing types determine both the gaskets needed to install the flange and characteristics related to the seal created.     Common face types include:                     Flat Face (FF): As the name suggests, flat face flanges feature a flat, even surface combined with a full face gasket that contacts most of the flange surface.                     Raised Face (RF): These flanges feature a small raised section around the bore with an inside bore circle gasket.                         Ring Joint Face (RTJ): Used in high-pressure and high-temperature processes, this face type features a groove in which a metal gasket sits to maintain the seal.             Tongue and Groove (T&G): These stainless steel blind flanges feature matching grooves and raised sections. This aids in installation as the design helps the flanges to self-align and provides a reservoir for gasket adhesive.                             Male & Female (M&F): Similar to tongue and groove flanges, these flanges use a matching pair of grooves and raised sections to secure the gasket. However, unlike tongue and groove flanges, these retain the gasket on the female face, providing more accurate placement and increased gasket material options.                 Many face types also offer one of two finishes: serrated or smooth.     Choosing between the options is important as they will determine the optimal gasket for a reliable seal.     In general, smooth faces work best with metallic gaskets while serrated faces help to create stronger seals with soft material gaskets.     Duplex alloys were originally created to counter the corrosion problems caused by chloride-bearing cooling waters and other aggressive chemical process fluids. They are known to be Duplex because of its mixed microstructure with about equal proportions of ferrite and austenite, duplex stainless steels are a family of grades, which range in corrosion performance depending on their alloy content. The term “Super-Duplex” is used to denote highly alloyed, high- performance Duplex steel with a pitting resistance equivalent of >40 (based on Cr % + 3.3Mo % + 16N %).     With a high level of chromium, Duplex steel plate flange  provides outstanding resistance to acids, acid chlorides, caustic solutions and other environments in the chemical/petrochemical, pulp, and paper industries.     Super Duplex contains 25% chromium, 7% nickel, 3.6% molybdenum as well as copper, tungsten, and nitrogen, they are highly alloyed steel with high PREN for use in aggressive environments.     The alloy consists of around 40-50 percent ferrite in the annealed condition. The super duplex microstructure has the high strength of the ferritic grades in spite of retaining the corrosion resistance of the austenitic grades. It is common to see Super Duplex Steel being used as a practical solution to chloride-induced stress cracking. It also has outstanding resistance against sulfide-stress corrosion cracking in sour-gas environments.     Super Duplex UNS S32750 Flanges help the material withstand pitting and crevice corrosion. These duplex steel blind flanges are also resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking, to erosion-corrosion, to corrosion fatigue, to general corrosion in acids. They have good weldability and very high mechanical strength.     Benefits of Super Duplex Flanges                     High strength,             High resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion.             High resistance to stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, and erosion,                                     Excellent resistance to chloride stress- corrosion cracking                                     High thermal conductivity                     Good sulfide stress corrosion resistance,                                     Low thermal expansion and higher heat conductivity than austenitic steels,                                     Good workability and weldability,                               High energy absorption.       Applications of Super Duplex Steel Flanges             Heat exchangers, tubes and pipes for production and handling of gas and oil,                       Heat exchangers and pipes in desalination plants,                                     Mechanical and structural components,                                     Power industry FGD systems,                                     Pipes handling solutions containing chlorides,                                     Utility and industrial systems, rotors, fans, shafts and press rolls where the high corrosion fatigue strength can be utilized,                                     Cargo tanks, vessels, piping and welding consumables for chemical tankers.                             Facebook                     Twitter                     WhatsApp            

Publish Date: 2021/08/09

Why Switch To Molded Pulp For Your Packaging?

Description:   Are you concerned with the amount of plastic you are using and wish to find ways to cut it down? One brilliant and creative solution is to replace plastic used in packaging with molded pulp, and Bonito packaging  is the best molded pulp tray manufacturer in town.     Bonitopak has been manufacturing custom moulded pulp trays and packaging materials for internal safety and cushioning of products. Most of our products (which include trays as well as corner protection pieces among others) are used in the packaging of electronics, cosmetics, wine bottles, and a variety of other items.     The ethos of Bonitopak rests in producing eco-friendly and sustainable products to replace plastic because the company is dedicated to making packaging materials biodegradable. This article will introduce you to what molded pulp is, its environmental impact, and how Bonitopak’s unique take on molded pulp trays makes them a fashionable addition to your products as well.     Molded Pulp And Sustainability     The manufacture of molded pulp items for packaging has underscored the potential for sustainable growth for businesses in all industries across the world. Made from recycled paperboard or newsprint, molded pulp is a packaging material that is ideal for cushioning products, especially for travel.     Today molded pulp is used all across the globe for packaging purposes, such as drink holders and as food service trays among other non-edible items. With concerns over plastic waste increasing, replacing non-biodegradable and compostable products from use is becoming more and more imperative.     Molded pulp is thus a sustainable alternative to Styrofoam, plastics and other petroleum based packaging, one that is also economical. There are no price surges with molded pulp, so ultimately this material is a lot more reliable, and overall requires less capital to make and use for packaging. s     Molded pulp can also be made waterproof for longevity by coating it in a layer of wax. This makes it easier to travel around with molded pulp without the pulp breaking away if it comes in contact with water. Because the pulp is made from wet pressing paper-based products, it is important to keep it from coming in contact with water as it may soak it up and fall apart.       At Bonitopak, you will find the highest grade of molded pulp made in stylish and intelligent designs, in multiple colors for a wide array of products. You will also find the different types in moulded pulp fiber packaging that is waterproof and can be repeatedly used should you want to.     How Is Molded Pulp Made?     An important aspect of using pulp moulded inserts and packaging products is that the manufacturing process is eco-friendly and cost- effective. To learn how these features are part of the molded pulp experience, let us take a closer look at the process of making molded pulp.             First, the paper is collected that is meant to be recycled anyways and is then added to a pulper, which can be understood as a giant blender that breaks down the paper into smaller fibers.                             Next, water is added to the pulper to make the pulp, which upon completion has an oatmeal-like texture and feel. Typically, the pulper takes around 20 minutes to complete this task.                     After the paper pulp has been extracted from the pulper, it is then poured into molds that have already been set up for the pulp to take a solid shape. Bonito packaging  uses various molds to make sure that the molded pulp we create can be incorporated into a variety of designs and packaging materials.             The fourth stage is the drying of the pulp in the molding trays. For this purpose, after the pulp has somewhat taken a shape inside the mold, it is then put onto a conveyor belt that takes it to the dryer. Think of the dryer like a huge oven, where all the water from the pulp is made to evaporate at high temperatures. In this process, the individual fibers meld together and become stronger, becoming molded fiber packaging.             Finally, the molded pulp is ready to be taken out of the dryer and used accordingly.     In this entire process, only a fixed amount of water is used to make the pulp, and only recycled materials are used. When compared to other packaging materials and how they are made (i.e., plastic), molded pulp seems the most environment-friendly and the most economical option as it does not require a lot of energy or raw material costs.     The Benefits Of Shifting To Molded Pulp Packaging     Besides being economical and eco-friendly in its manufacturing process, molded pulp is also biodegradable and compostable, which reduces overall waste. If molded pulp were to replace plastic, the world and its natural habitats would see a huge move towards sustainable living and that too at low personal costs.     Molded fiber trays have the advantage of being customizable in terms of color, design, and imprinting logos on them for various brands. Because of this incredible feature, Bonitopak offers a wide variety of customization for its clients i.e., you can get logos printed, embossed, debossed, and even lasered onto your packaging, and that too in your color scheme!     In terms of providing cushioning and protection to products, molded pulp is not lagging behind other materials at all. Many people have reported saying that their products held better in molded pulp trays as opposed to in plastic or thermopile packaging materials. Bonitopak’s molded pulp products, such as molded pulp trays, have been proven to have superior shock absorption and cushioning from vibrations.     Because all the processes and raw material are sustainable and recyclable, the overall impact on the environment is significantly less. Bonito’s commitment to being eco-friendly in business endeavors has generated quite the buzz about our company’s products, particularly among young people.     And finally, making molded pulp for packaging is a profitable business itself, because making it does not depend heavily on energy sources like oil or gas. Moreover, the molds themselves make assembling them way easier, therefore saving on crucial time that could be used more productively elsewhere.

Publish Date: 2021/08/09


Description:   LED Linear is a phrase we often hear in the realms of commercial interior design, but what exactly does it mean and how do we use it? This article aims to ‘de-mystify’ commercial LED Linear lighting and give you an insight into how and where to use it, to effortlessly turn cool offices into exceptional ones!     Firstly let’s talk about LEDs. An LED is short for ‘Light Emitting Diode’, which is a highly efficient long-lasting source of light which uses a semiconductor to convert electricity into light. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine with ‘electron holes’ within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons (light). The colour of the light is determined by the energy band of the semiconductor.     Right, that’s enough of the techy stuff, lets take a look at how the LED came to be.     The LED appeared as early on 1962, and were used as practical components in electric items, such as warning lights. The early LEDs were limited to low- intensity infrared light such as those still used in remote controls, and do you remember those first LED watches with a black screen and red numbers appeared when you pressed a button? The first visible light LEDs were also low intensity and limited to red, but modern LEDs are now available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths and can be extremely bright.     SO WHAT IS LED LINEAR     LED Linear Lighting is simply the use of many ‘Light emitting diodes’ packaged together in a long, narrow housing to create a strip of light. This simple concept revolutionised the way we light spaces.     Before the conception of LED Linear, lighting long commercial spaces such as offices, warehouses and retail situations was notoriously tricky. Such spaces were lit with large, industrial incandescent bulbs. Linear lighting started evolving in the 1950s with fluorescent tubes, mainly used in industrial spaces. By the 1970s this technology was being used in homes, garages and workshops, and retail spaces. This further created a need for lower cost, better- looking fittings. Creating a continuous uninterrupted line of light wasn’t possible before LED because the fluorescent tubes had to stop and start leaving a black or dark spot.     The improved looks didn’t happen until the early 2000’s when the early version of commercial LED Linear as we know it was made. The demand for LED Linear lighting is now huge and continues to grow. The difference now is that linear architectural lighting and LED technology has broadened the applications of commercial LED linear fixtures. The industry continues to evolve with improvements in aesthetics and performance, moving away from the old, traditional housings, utilising materials in a better way and incorporating more advanced technology.     LED LINEAR REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS     There’s a couple of key things that Synergy’s clients like to know about standards and regulations around commercial lighting, particularly for use in public and work spaces; just ask and we can advise!     One of the main regulations is regarding glare from commercial lighting. Excessive glare from lights, such as LED highbay light can cause eyestrain and headaches, so it’s important to reduce direct glare and reflected glare within an office environment. Unified Glare Rating (UGR) is used as a measure of glare and is calculated by the glare from all visible lamps divided by the background lamination of the room. In an office environment, a UGR of less than 19 is considered acceptable for best concentration. Want to find out more about UGR19?     Lux levels are important too. This is essentially the light level in a space, usually measured from a specified height (such as desk height in an office). CIBSE (Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers) specify recommended lux levels for different areas in the commercial building sector.     WHY COMMERCIAL LED LINEAR?     Our clients appreciate a host of benefits boasted by commercial LED Linear lighting, including;     Aesthetics – if looks are important to you, then LED Linear has a pretty strong offering. It provides a massive amount of versatility for creating unique and eye-catching designs. Bespoke angles, curves and customised RAL colour powder coating are just a few of the options available that make LED Linear an easy choice.     Directional light – LEDs are directional, reducing the need for reflectors and diffusers that can trap light.     Colour temperature – LED Linear lights offer a large range of colour temperatures, which affect the way the eye interprets the light. From cool white to warm white, different temperatures can be used to create mood and atmosphere in a space. Neutral white, or 4000 kelvin to use its technical name, is recommended for offices and retail areas which provides the most comfortable environment.     Cost effective – an obvious advantage, LED Linear is extremely efficient to run due to its low energy usage, and also its inherent longevity; an LED will typically last many times longer than a fluorescent tube.     Once you’ve made the decision to use commercial LED Linear lighting for your space, there are a bewildering array of options, so we’ve broken it down into some of the key factors for you to consider:     LED LIGHT TYPE     The three main types of LED Linear are pendant, surface mounted or recessed.     LED Linear Pendant lighting use suspension wires to hang from the ceiling, and are most suited to rooms with generous ceiling height. These are also ideal for creating stunning accent lighting – think about hanging over reception desks, stairways or atriums. Surface Mounted LED tri proof light are mounted onto the surface of the and are suited to situations where pendant lights could be too low due to ceiling height. Recessed LED linear are recessed into a surface, be it a ceiling, wall or . This offers clean, uninterrupted lines.     LED LINEAR PROFILE     LED Linear lights with LED lichtband system can be straight or shaped to create dramatic sculptures for ultimate effect.     Straight profiles will typically create a subtler effect, but can also be used to create eye catching geometric style designs. Curved profiles will typically help to create flow in a space and give a feeling of movement. Round profiles are often used to help divide space into zones, particularly in open plan spaces. For example LED rings suspended lower than surrounding lighting over collaborative zones creates a sense of focus.     LED LINEAR APPLICATIONS     LED linear is very versatile and can be used for a number of commercial lighting applications, such as LED sport light.     General lighting – this is the high level lighting that provides that background light in a space. Care should be taken that light is distributed evenly and glare is avoided. Task lighting – this is focused light for specific tasks, such as a low hung LED ring over a collaborative area. Accent – light used for aesthetic effect, such as to highlight or mirror the shape of a distinctive architectural feature or give a sense of height to a room. Our recessed LED Linear lights are perfect for this. Let your imagination run wild and the results can be stunning!     Here are the top 4 reasons why LED Emergency Lights are better:             Efficiency — LEDs use a process called electroluminescence, meaning that electrons are combined with electron holes when switched on. Incandescent bulbs have a filament that burns to create light, which means energy is being used to create heat. There is no filament used in LEDs, so heat is not a major issue. LEDs are thinner and lighter, which makes them more economical and efficient. Low-temperature performance, ability to be controlled digitally, and the robust nature of the bulbs make LED lights more efficient than others. Overall, LED lights typically produce a 30% energy savings compared to normal bulbs, and solar light might be a more eco-friendly product.             Lifespan — The lifespan of an LED bulb is about 50x longer than standard incandescent bulbs. The burning filament inside of an incandescent bulb wears out very quickly, which results in the bulb needing replaced. LED lights do not have a burning filament, which allow them to last approximately 50,000 more hours than a standard incandescent bulb.                     Brightness — Brightness is extremely important when it comes to an emergency light. Emergency lights are used to illuminate the path for evacuation of the building in the event of an emergency. LED lights are some of the brightest types of bulbs available. They are much brighter than incandescent bulbs of the same wattage. LED lights are the best choice for brightness in an emergency light.                     Maintenance — Inspections and testing are required for all emergency lights; LEDs are no exception. However, the extended lifespan makes replacement less likely. Constant replacement of non-LED bulbs can get costly. Emergency lights with LED bulbs can save your facility money in the long run.

Publish Date: 2021/08/09

LED vs. LCD TVs explained: What’s the difference?

Description:       LCD Monitors             Liquid crystal display technology works by blocking light. Specifically, an LCD is made of two pieces of polarized glass (also called substrate) that contain a liquid crystal material between them. A backlight creates light that passes through the first substrate. At the same time, electrical currents cause the liquid crystal molecules to align to allow varying levels of light to pass through to the second substrate and create the colors and images that you see.                 Active and Passive Matrix Displays                 Most LCD displays use active matrix technology. A thin film transistor (TFT) arranges tiny transistors and capacitors in a matrix on the glass of the display. To address a particular pixel, the proper row is switched on, and then a charge is sent down the correct column. Since all of the other rows that the column intersects are turned off, only the capacitor at the designated pixel receives a charge. The capacitor is able to hold the charge until the next refresh cycle.                 The other type of LCD technology is passive matrix. This type of LCD display uses a grid of conductive metal to charge each pixel. Although they are less expensive to produce, passive matrix office monitors are rarely used today due to the technology's slow response time and imprecise voltage control compared to active matrix technology.                 LCD displays offer super sharp pictures and great color. But do the pros outweigh the cons when it comes to LCD TV displays? Before deciding on a thumbs up or thumbs down, you should understand how an LCD display works.                 Mechanics of an LCD display                 The LCD consists of a large number of pixels, or picture elements, consisting of liquid crystal molecules held between two sets of transparent electrodes.                 The liquid crystals react in predictable ways when the electrical charge running between those electrodes is changed — meaning they twist and move in ways that let different amounts (and colors) of light through the crystals. The LCD has a control system that translates your video signals into the proper charges for each electrode. A light source shines through the LCD panel and creates your picture.                 When compared to the other type of flat-panel display (plasma), LCDs tend to be found on the smaller size of the spectrum. You’ll rarely find a plasma smart TV smaller than 42 inches, but you can find LCDs at sizes as small as 13 inches.                 Benefits of LCD displays                 LCD displays have some strong points when it comes to playing video:                 Extremely high resolutions: LCDs can easily reach HDTV resolutions (in fact, most LCD displays do). You can find a 1080p-capable LCD display in all but the smallest sizes — while many plasma displays are still 720p.                 Excellent color: LCDs offer exceptional reproduction of colors, with the potential for beautifully re-created colors across the spectrum. This differs from other flat-panel displays (such as plasma systems), which often tend to display certain colors inaccurately.                 Great picture: The newest and most expensive LCDs use an LED (light emitting diode) instead of a traditional bulb for their light source. These LEDs produce a higher-quality picture because the LED itself emits a more natural (closer to daylight) light than a bulb (which tends to be yellowish, not true white).                 Energy efficiency: LCD HDTVs are perhaps the greenest HDTVs. Compared to plasmas, LCD HDTVs use less electricity to run. You can probably expect to use about 30 percent less power for an LCD than for a similar-sized plasma.                 PC monitor-capable: Most LCD television displays can also do double-duty as a gaming monitor, plugging directly into any PC with a standard PC video cable.                 No burn-in: If you play a lot of video games, watch the stock ticker on MSNBC, or do other things with your display that involve a lot of static content (images that don’t change or move around) on a CRT display, you can end up with those images permanently burned into the phosphors on your LCD screen. Because LCDs use a separate backlight instead of creating their own light with phosphors, they are immune to this problem (plasmas are not, by the way).                 Inherently progressive: Unlike direct-view systems, LCDs don’t display their picture using electron guns scanning lines across a screen. Instead, LCDs use millions of tiny transistors that can be individually controlled by the “brains” inside the display. This means that LCDs can easily handle progressive-scan sources, such as progressive-scan DVD and HDTV.                 Drawbacks of LCD displays                 Consider the following problem areas before you buy an LCD system as your primary display in a home theater:                 Slightly more expensive for their size: Inch for viewing inch, LCDs tend to be a bit more expensive than plasma flat-panels.                 Poor reproduction of blacks: Compared with direct-view tube displays, LCDs do a poor job of reproducing black images. Darker screen images never show up as true black, but rather as various shades of gray, and actions happening in these darker areas are difficult to discern.                 Limited viewing angle: Although they are getting better due to some intensive efforts by manufacturers, LCDs typically have a poor viewing angle. If you are not sitting almost directly in front of the screen, such as 21.5 inch screen pc, or 24 inch screen pc, you don’t get a good picture.                 Limited brightness: Because LCDs use a backlight shining through the liquid crystal, most of the light is absorbed. As a result, the LCD displays have lower contrast and are harder to view in a brightly lit room (the picture appears washed out), compared with plasma TVs. LCD TVs with LED backlights do better in this regard.             LED vs. LCD TVs explained: What’s the difference?                 Despite having a different acronym, LED TV is just a specific type of LCD TV, which uses a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel to control where light is displayed on your screen. These panels are typically composed of two sheets of polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution between them. When an electric current passes through the liquid, it causes the crystals to align, so that light can (or can’t) pass through. Think of it as a shutter, either allowing light to pass through or blocking it out.                 Since both LED and LCD TVs are based around LCD technology, the question remains: what is the difference? Actually, it’s about what the difference was. Older LCD TVs used cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) to provide lighting, whereas LED LCD TVs used an array of smaller, more efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to illuminate the screen.                 Since the technology is better, all LCD TVs now use LED lights and are colloquially considered LED TVs. For those interested, we’ll go deeper into backlighting below, or you can move onto the Local Dimming section.                 Backlighting                 Three basic illumination forms have been used in LCD TVs: CCFL backlighting, full-array LED backlighting, and LED edge lighting. Each of these illumination technologies is different from one another in important ways. Let’s dig into each.                 CCFL Backlighting                 CCFL backlighting is an older, now-abandoned form of display technology in which a series of cold cathode lamps sit across the inside of the TV behind the LCD. The lights illuminate the crystals fairly evenly, which means all regions of the picture will have similar brightness levels. This affects some aspects of picture quality, which we discuss in more detail below. Since CCFLs are larger than LED arrays, CCFL-based LCD TVs are thicker than LED- backlit LCD TVs.

Publish Date: 2021/08/08