What is a Precision Lathe?

Description:   Sometimes a shop doesn’t do enough turning work to justify the purchase of a CNC lathe. But when it needs to produce precision turned parts, even if for a very small lot size, the shop needs a solution.     Such was the case for Sturges DesignWorks, a company in Portland, Ore., that provides automation and design engineering solutions in a variety of industries, including medical products, electronics, fixturing and tooling, and research and development. The company was working with a client who needed a special machine built that required substantial CNC lathe work. But Sturges didn’t have a lathe. “CNC lathes are expensive, take up much needed floor space, and have a steep learning curve,” explains Dan Sturges, company CEO. He considered a CNC mini lathe, but found that it would not be precise, rigid or accurate enough for the work required.     To address the issue, the company developed what it calls the Sturges Turning Head system to bridge the gap between traditional, full-featured CNC lathes and low-productivity, small CNC mini lathes. “I had always wondered why we couldn’t somehow do precision CNC lathe work on a CNC milling machine,” Mr. Sturges says. “The problem is, even if you attach a lathe tool to the mill spindle and lock it, there’s still a tiny bit of play that makes it impossible to maintain a standard of precision. So we developed a turning bar toolholder that places the tip of the tool at the spindle’s center of rotation, eliminating the slight play in the tool tip and providing the precision and accuracy needed for professional, high-quality swis type automatic lathe work on a mill.” Based on this principle, the company built the prototype for the Turning Head system, which is capable of external turning, facing and contouring operations. An optional cross slide accessory bolts onto the table, allowing for plunge operations such as parting and grooving.     The Turning Head spindle—the equivalent of a lathe headstock—is made of steel and cast iron and uses premier Grade 7 pre-loaded ball bearings that are lubricated for life. The standard model has less than 50 millionths of an inch runout, and the super-precision model has less than 20 millionths. It has a large, through-bore 5C spindle with a 4-degree taper mount nose.     The system comes with a set of three turning bars, each with an R8 or 3/4-inch straight. The universal design allows left-hand, right-hand and center cutting operations simply by rotating the tool. Tool changes between different turning operations are eliminated. The toolholders are available in three sizes (1/32 radius, 1/64 radius and 1/128 radius) and maintain cutter concentricity to less than 0.001-inch TIR.     Operating the system is straightforward. The operator places a piece of stock in the spindle, tightens the collet, turns on the unit, and hits “Go” on the CNC interface. The system allows the machinist to set up a job on a mill and crank out smooth, accurate parts in a repetitive way. Operating on the existing milling machine’s software, the CNC program provides fast, efficient operation without the need to learn new software.     It’s hard to justify the expense of a multi-axis precision CNC lathe when only one, ten or 100 parts are required. “Machinists, engineering departments, automation groups, tool makers, mold makers and machine builders often don’t have the need for high-volume production,” Mr. Sturges says. “What they need is an economical way to create precision lathe parts.”     The Turning Head system can fill that void. Indexing capability allows indexing the work and seamlessly transitions between milling and turning operations on the same part in the same setup. Multi-axis capability is achieved on an existing machine in the shop. According to Mr. Sturges, “Parts made with this system are indistinguishable from parts made on a swiss CNC machine—same accuracy, same repeatability, same quality.” In a sense, it’s the best of both worlds.     A precision swis lathe is a computerized lathe used to create detailed solid objects from a single piece of wood or metal. Using a sophisticated computer software, the precision swis turning lathe can produce a near-finished product with minimal waste. A lathe functions by spinning the raw materials while cutting, drilling, sanding, knurling or deforming. The use of a lathe produces a finished product that is symmetrical along the axis of rotation.     Earlier versions of a lathe have been traced back to the Egyptians, who developed a two person lathe using a manual process. This design was improved by the Romans who added a turning bow to provide a more consistent turning rate. In the Middle Ages the pedal was added to allow the craftsman to use both hands to work on the wood. This type of lathe is called a spring pole lathe and the development was critical to expanding the types of items that could be created on a lathe. A great lathe was the first lathe to allow the piece to turn continuously but was powered by one person turning a crank while the other worked on the piece.     Only during the early 19th century was a motorized lathe developed. This change significantly reduced the time needed to complete an item and allowed the addition of metal in the process. The addition of computers in the early 1970s created precision lathes that are used today for the mass production of high quality product. This shift has removed the need for master craftsman and replaced these roles with computer operating technicians.     A precision lathe, such as single spindle automatic lathe, is able to cut and shape a material to within 0.001 inches (0.00254 cm) of accuracy. The cylindrical basis of the lathe means that the material is secured at each end and the product is created by the removal of materials from the solid item. A precision lathe is used to create baseball bats, table legs, poles and a wide range of ornamental pieces.     In order to work with a precision lathe, you will need to be trained on the specific equipment used. The original design of the product is completed by a product design and the actual programming is done by the lathe operator. Repeated testing is completed before the mass production work is started. The modern lathe is a highly complex machine that can product thousands of items an hour.     When purchasing a precision lathe, it is important to review the detailed product specifications. Make sure it will have the capability of creating the types of products that you require. Check the details of the warranty and service agreement to ensure that your investment is properly covered.

Publish Date: 2021/08/30

What Is a Lock Solenoid?

Description:     Electronic door locks are a way to replace keys or to add additional automation features, like remote locking or unlocking. Although most commonly found on cars, many cutting-edge security providers are offering electronic door locks for homes and businesses.     Types of door locks     In any type of door lock, a latch or bolt is made to cross the opening between the side of the door and the doorframe, preventing access. This can be a “spring bolt,” which is held in place by springs and allows the door to close (but not reopen) when locked, or the more secure “dead bolt,” which stays in place until manually unlocked. In both cases, locking and unlocking is achieved by rotating the visible element (a knob or a key in a lock cylinder) to move the bolt or latch.     Traditional key locks use some variation of the “pin and tumbler” method, in which the lock cylinder is held in place with a line of small metal pins, each of which consists of an upper and lower half. When a key is inserted and turned, the uneven “serrated” edge ensures that each pin is moved a certain distance. The cylinder may be turned only when each pin is moved just enough to create a straight separation between the upper and lower halves of all pins. There are also novel locks as fingerprint door lock.     Electronic lock also involves parts called “actuators,” which connect the bolt or the cylinder to a small motor completely buried within the door or frame itself. The motor is controlled by an electrical impulse, which may be triggered in a number of ways: by an electronic card reader, by a keypad or by a wireless remote control sensor. Either way, the electronic door lock, functioning as a door release, is configured to start the motor-driven actuator only once it has received the correct electronic input.     A lock solenoid is a type of electric locking mechanism that uses an electromagnetic lock device containing a tightly wound coil of metal wire called a solenoid to provide the mechanical energy that opens and closes the lock. Solenoid locks are often used as door locks and are also used to lock other things, such as cabinets or drawers. They are especially common for doors that are locked and unlocked remotely, such as the main doors of many apartment complexes or situations where security is a particular concern.     The essential component of a lock solenoid is a length of insulated copper wire connected to a source of electrical current. The wire is coiled around a long, frequently cylinder-shaped core made of iron or some other ferromagnetic material that is positioned so that it can move nearer to or farther away from the center of the coil when force is applied to it. When electrical current passes through the wire, it generates a magnetic field that moves the core, turning electrical energy into mechanical energy and producing linear motion. This allows the solenoid to open or close the bolt in the lock.     Solenoid locks have several features that can make them desirable in many applications. Unlike purely mechanical locks, a lock solenoid with power supply can open and close without needing a human to be physically present to operate it, making it useful for locks that receive instructions to open and close from a separate location or that do so automatically according to a preset timer or signals from sensor equipment without direct human input. They can also be designed to be unlocked by things other than a physical key, such as a password; a signal from a radio-frequency identification device or personal digital assistant; or biometric data such as fingerprints, voice prints, or retinal scanning.     Another useful feature is that, depending on the design of the lock solenoid, the core can be positioned so that activating the electrical current either pushes the core outward, throwing the bolt and shutting the lock, or polls the core inward to open the lock. A lock that uses a magnetic field to close the lock, sometimes with card reader, will automatically open in the event of failure, or "fail open,” while a lock that uses the magnetic field to open the lock will do the opposite and “fail closed.”     This is a useful attribute of solenoids and an important design consideration, because it determines how the lock will react in the event of equipment failure or loss of electrical power. For example, lock solenoids used on the doors of businesses or residences will usually be designed to fail open so that in the event of a dangerous event that causes power failure, such as a fire in the building, people will be able to escape the building unobstructed. On the other hand, in the case of some solenoid locks, such as locks on a vault, a safe, or a cabinet containing money, valuables, or other potential targets of theft such as sensitive government or business information, it is more desirable for the lock to fail closed so that a power loss does not leave them suddenly vulnerable.

Publish Date: 2021/08/30

How Does Touch Screen Technology Work?

Description:    If you’re old enough to remember 1990, that’s the year MC Hammer released his signature, Grammy-nominated song “U Can’t Touch This.” Hammer may have looked great rapping in parachute pants but he wasn’t that great at prognosticating. Within 15 years people were indeed touching it . . . and they were about to touch it a whole lot more after 2007, once Apple released its groundbreaking iPhone, the first handheld device ever shipped with a multi-touch display. Today, the appetite for high-quality interactive displays has spawned a massive industry with sales by 2018 expected to reach $31.9 billion. Though the display-user interface is now ubiquitous and so intuitive that even infants seem to know how to swipe left and right, we sometimes forget how truly revolutionary and disruptive this technology was when it was introduced.     Touch-device shipment and revenue will continue to rise year over year, peaking in 2019, according to market-data insight firm IHS DisplaySearch. Some touchscreens employ pressure sensors to detect contact, while some use visible or infrared light, and still others use sound waves. The broad range of environments and conditions under which the displays are deployed has required designers and manufacturers to get creative. Let’s take a look at some of the different types of touch technology, how they function, and what their advantages are in terms of reliability, durability, accuracy, size, number of touch points and, of course, cost.     Resistive Touch Screen     Resistive touchscreens are the most common and cost effective. Applications best suited to this pressure-sensitive technology are industrial, human-machine interfaces with zero tolerance for error. Because the surface responds only to direct pressure, it means users are less likely to register a false touch. The display functions well in high-traffic or rugged environments where there’s moisture or even debris, and it can independently work as LCD advertising player. And you can use it with gloves or a stylus, which makes it perfect for mining, petroleum, manufacturing, construction, and laboratory applications. Note the two types of resistive touchscreens: soft and hard surface. The soft display bears a flexible top layer of plastic ITO (indium tin oxide) film affixed over a layer of glass. In between is a crosshatch of electrode sensors that form a grid of X- and Y-axis touch points. The hard-surface display is similar but for a grid that’s sandwiched between two panes of glass, usually bezeled around the perimeter. It’s a cost-efficient technology but there are some downsides, too. Number one, the grid is an analog technology that drifts, requiring periodic recalibration. Second, the ITO film can wear and crack over time. And, finally, the screen can be difficult to read under bright light, where the image quality suffers.     Projected Capacitive Touch Screen     Unlike resistive touch, which relies on pressure, projected capacitive touch screens rely on shifting electrical charges instead of moving parts. If you’ve ever worn socks on carpeting in winter then touched a metal object and gotten a shock, you’ve experienced electrical capacitance. PCAP technology involves two conductive layers that create an electrostatic field, which transfers energy when contacted. One of the key benefits is its ability to process multiple touch points simultaneously. Another great thing is, by eliminating the layers of film and glass PCAP offers near-perfect optical clarity and performance. It’s one of the main reason so many smart phones use it. It tends to be more expensive than resistive touch but its optical clarity, power efficiency and aesthetics have made it the go-to technology for tablets and phones. Because its images are accurate and contrast ratios high, it’s also popular in medical imaging and other industries where an onscreen blotch or defect could lead to catastrophic results. An optional ‘optical bonding’ feature recommended by Premio, which eliminates air and moisture between the layers, makes for an even clearer and more rugged display that withstands shocks and vibrations. A downside is PCAP’s susceptibility to ‘noise’ generated by electromagnetic interference (EMI). Because the display must be finely calibrated to ignore nearby EMI noise, users have to operate PCAP with a finger rather than fingernail, gloved finger or stylus.     Surface Acoustic Wave Touch Screen     Surface acoustic wave (SAW) touch technology uses a transducer to record the absorption of ultrasonic waves transmitted across the display’s surface. Superior clarity and resolution make SAW ideal for in-door applications that require precision image quality as in devices used for research and monitoring. The technology primarily is used with smaller touchscreens of up to 32 inches. Other suitable in-door uses include ATMs and information kiosks, such as self service kiosk. Key advantages include high-durability glass, superior optical clarity, and broader activation capabilities using finger, gloved-finger or soft-tip stylus. Vulnerabilities include moving liquids or condensation that produces false touches, solid stains that cause non-responsiveness until cleaned, and less-robust drag and draw capabilities.     Optical Infrared IR Touch Screen     Owing to its flexibility, optical infrared (IR) is another highly popular technology. Notably, IR is the only touchscreen that operates without a film or glass cover layer. Instead it relies on infrared light-emitting diodes projecting an invisible grid of beams that register touch wherever light is disrupted. It offers great clarity, is easy to calibrate, and lasts a long time, too, since there’s no flexible layer to degrade over time. The main drawback is the presence of a noticeable gap between flat panel and IR sensors. For this reason it’s less suited for industrial and highly trafficked applications where high-pressure dust, debris or liquid might harm the electronics inside the LCD panel. The optics are clearer than resistive or capacitive touch, it provides a rugged surface that manufacturers can bezel and seal against dust and moisture, and it supports multi-touch and dual-touch inputs. Produced mainly at sizes larger than 32 inches, IR technology is ideally suited for use with kiosks, or self service machine, outdoor installations, point-of-sale systems, factory automation, and other applications where bare fingers are impractical – from industrial and pharmaceutical environments to retail, hospitality, and service industries.     The Premio Touch     Although MC Hammer couldn’t have foreseen that U touching it would be so easy, he might’ve guessed that the technology behind it would be so sophisticated. Before investing in any industrial display, however, first we have to weigh the pros and cons of functionality, durability, aesthetics and cost. We also have to consider the time and effort required to maintain and calibrate the device so that it performs optimally in its particular industrial environment. Fortunately, Premio specializes in helping clients identify the right technology for the job. With a Class 10,000, dust-controlled clean room dedicated to touch-sensor lamination at our headquarters in Greater Los Angeles, Premio offers extensive expertise integrating and manufacturing award-winning, touch-enabled products for a broad range of industrial uses. In fact, we’ve been providing solutions for original equipment and design manufacturers for more than 28 years.

Publish Date: 2021/08/30

Bandages sense infections, change color, treat infection

Description:    In what reads like science fiction, a new study published in the journal ACS Central Science reports the development of bandages that detect the presence of bacteria in wounds and change color, depending on whether they are drug-sensitive or drug-resistant. This is an important step in helping patients recover better. There are also bandages for specific uses, like orthopedic bandage, and fixation bandage.     Drug resistance – the problem     Drug resistance is among the greatest threats to worldwide health. If bacterial infections could be sensed early enough to treat them before they take a hold on the patient, it would help avoid serious infections. And if the bacteria resist the antibiotic, being able to detect this would be crucial in switching drugs to arrest the infection before it spreads.     At present, the methods of detecting antibiotic resistance are expensive, require professional expertise, and take too much time. Moreover, using antibiotics for infections that are resistant to them promotes even more drug resistance.     Colorimetric methods to the rescue     The new study describes a way of doing just this, based on a color-changing material. Described as “a portable paper-based band-aid (PBA)”, it is a colorimetric way of sensing and treating sensitive bacterial infections while signaling the presence of drug-resistant bacteria as well.     Early detection of infection in this study exploits the microenvironment of bacterial growth, which includes an acidic pH, various toxins and enzymes. Acidity is an easy way to track the presence of pathogenic bacteria because it is due to their breakdown of glucose. Drug resistance, on the other hand, depends on the presence of the beta-lactamase and similar enzymes. The presence of beta-lactamase is a widely used indicator of bacterial antibiotic resistance because it denotes resistance to the extremely common beta-lactam antibiotics.     Once drug resistance has been identified, photodynamic therapy and other similar treatments have been adopted to increase the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These molecules act on multiple cell targets associated with drug resistance, including the bacterial cell wall, nucleic acids, and proteins. A careful use of this strategy is necessary since ROS attack healthy cells and bacteria indiscriminately.     The innovation     The need of the hour is a portable, cheap and accurate device to detect and overcome antibiotic resistance. Paper-based platforms, including biosensors and sterilization paper, have stolen the limelight in this regard because of multiple advantages: low cost, sustainability, safety, and ease of adjustment. The current study focuses on a paper-based bandage device to detect and treat infection selectively after sensing antibiotic resistance.     The basis of the bandage is colorimetry. And tapes and plasters are also needed. It contains bromyothymol B that is green at first but becomes yellow on encountering acids that are found in the microenvironment of a bacterial infection. In this situation, the material releases an antibiotic, ampicillin, loaded on nanoparticles and coated with the sugar chitosan that attracts bacteria due to their negative charge. When the nanoparticles come into contact with the acid environment, they release the drug. If the bacteria are sensitive to this drug, they will be killed. If otherwise, they secrete beta-lactamase to inactivate the drug. This enzyme acts on the yellow molecule nitrocefin to turn it red.     If the bandage for first aid becomes red, the researchers will pass light through the bandage, which stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species from a metallo-organic compound called PCN-224, built on a porphyrin base, and which has high photodynamic properties, releasing a flood of ROS in response to light. These inhibit or weaken the bacteria, increasing their susceptibility to the drug. Thus, the tubular bandage has been proved to accelerate wound healing in mice after introducing both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant bacteria into the wounds.     HOW TO CARE FOR RAW OPEN SKIN WOUNDS?     All raw wounds will heal if there is enough blood supply to the area, and if the raw tissues are not allowed to “dry and die.” Open raw wounds will heal with proper care even if there is exposed fat, bone, tendon, muscle, or joint. Red is raw; pink is healed. If the wound is red, it has lost the waterproof barrier of skin and it is an open or raw wound that oozes liquid as our bodies are 80% water. The most important part of the care of raw wounds is to keep them clean and greasy so the tissues do not dry and die. Wounds all over the body can be treated in this manner. Below, we illustrate 4 typical case examples where we use this approach in complex wounds of the foot, hand, fingertips,2 and face with exposed bone, cartilage, joints, and tendons. In some cases, if there are deep, open, caved in wounds, we add a vacuum assisted wound dressing to accelerate flattening the cave.     What Kind of Operation Bandage Do We Need for Wounds?     Dressings do not need to be sterile, just clean.6 Sterile dressings are expensive and unnecessary. Coban tape off the roll is a good clean dressing that can be directly applied over grease on fingers and leg wounds.2 Panty liners, sanitary napkins, and diapers out of the package are another good source of clean inexpensive dressings.7 Every day, the old dressing is removed and the patient gets in the shower to let clean water run over the wound. After the shower, grease is applied thickly to a clean bandage. That is placed on the wound to pad it, protect it, and keep it moist until tomorrow

Publish Date: 2021/08/30

WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF A CAR?

Description:    From the steering system to the front and rear suspension, a gas-powered vehicle is filled with a host of parts that come together to power your car, truck or SUV down the road. While it may feel like a foreign language, having a working understanding of how the steering and suspension systems relate to the other auto parts of your vehicle is extremely helpful in visualizing how your vehicle functions. A whole set of auto parts with a car brand can be HYUNDAI auto parts, Kia auto parts, Daewoo auto parts, Chevrolet auto parts, Renault auto parts, Toyota auot parts, etc..     Engine     The heart and soul of your vehicle is the internal combustion engine. The engine block features parts such as the timing chain, camshaft, crankshaft, spark plugs, cylinder heads, valves and pistons.     Battery     The battery delivers the electricity needed to run your vehicle’s electrical components. Without a battery, your car won’t run.     Alternator     Part of the electrical system, the alternator charges the battery and powers the electrical system while your car is running.     Radiator     The radiator is responsible for helping the engine keep cool by removing heat from coolant before it is pumped back through the engine.     Front Axle     Part of the suspension system, the front axle is where the front wheel hubs are attached.     Front Steering and Suspension     Helps improve the ride and handling of the vehicle. Though systems vary in makeup, they typically include shock absorbers/struts, ball joints, tie rod ends, rack and pinion steering system and idler/pitman arms.     Brakes systems     Found on all four wheels, your brakes are one of the most important safety systems on your vehicle. Disc brakes can be found on the front and back wheels and feature brake pads and calipers. Drum brakes with brake shoes and wheel cylinders may be found on the back wheels of some vehicles.     Catalytic Converter     A device that controls emissions from your vehicle, the catalytic converter transforms harmful gases and pollutants into less harmful emissions before they leave the car’s exhaust system.     Muffler     Keeps the exhaust system quiet through the use of baffles or other materials that reduce or muffle the sound.     Tailpipe     Carries exhaust fumes from the muffler to outside of the vehicle.     Fuel Tank     Typically located before the rear axle, the fuel tank holds the gasoline that powers your vehicle. The placement is important to avoid areas that could crumple in a crash.     Rear Axle     Key part of the suspension system to which the rear wheels are mounted.     Rear Suspension System     As with the front suspension, the rear suspension contributes to the handling and ride quality of the vehicle. Systems can vary, but they usually are made up of shocks, coil springs, ball joints, control arms and CV joints.

Publish Date: 2021/08/30